Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Boss, Lisa Branson, Sandy Cron, Stanley and Kang, Duck-Hee 2016. Biobehavioral Examination of Religious Coping, Psychosocial Factors, and Executive Function in Homebound Older Adults. Religions, Vol. 7, Issue. 5, p. 42.


    Xu, Minle Thomas, Patricia A. and Umberson, Debra 2016. Marital Quality and Cognitive Limitations in Late Life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 71, Issue. 1, p. 165.


    Greenberg, Mark S. Tanev, Kaloyan Marin, Marie-France and Pitman, Roger K. 2014. Stress, PTSD, and dementia. Alzheimer's & Dementia, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. S155.


    ×

The association between social stress and global cognitive function in a population-based study: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study

  • Y. Leng (a1), N. W. J. Wainwright (a1), S. Hayat (a1), B. C. M. Stephan (a2), F. E. Matthews (a3), R. Luben (a1), P. G. Surtees (a1), K.-T. Khaw (a1) and C. Brayne (a4)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712001316
  • Published online: 12 June 2012
Abstract
Background

Stress is thought to exert both positive and negative effects on cognition, but the precise cognitive effects of social stress and individuals' response to stress remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between different measures of social stress and cognitive function in a middle- to older-aged population using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

Method

Participants completed a comprehensive assessment of lifetime social adversity between 1993 and 1997 and the short form of the Mini Mental State Examination (SF-MMSE), an assessment of global cognitive function, during the third health check between 2004 and 2011 (a median of 10.5 years later). A low MMSE score was defined as a score in the bottom quartile (20–26).

Results

Completed MMSE scores and stress measures were available for 5129 participants aged 48–90 years. Participants who reported that their lives had been more stressful over the previous 10 years were significantly more likely to have low MMSE scores [odds ratio (OR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.24 per unit increase in perceived stress], independently of sociodemographic factors, physical and emotional health. The effects were restricted to the highest level of stress and the association was stronger among participants with a lower educational level. Adaptation following life event experiences also seemed to be associated with MMSE scores after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, but the association was attenuated with further adjustment.

Conclusions

In this generally high-functioning population, individuals' interpretations and responses to stressful events, rather than the events themselves, were associated with cognitive function.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Y. Leng, M.Phil., Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Strangeways Research Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. (Email: yl411@cam.ac.uk)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

TD Albright , ER Kandel , MI Posner (2000). Cognitive neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 10, 612624.

C Brayne , PG Ince , HA Keage , IG McKeith , FE Matthews , T Polvikoski , R Sulkava (2010). Education, the brain and dementia: neuroprotection or compensation? Brain 133, 22102216.

JE Brazier , R Harper , NM Jones , A O'Cathain , KJ Thomas , T Usherwood , L Westlake (1992). Validating the SF-36 health survey questionnaire: new outcome measure for primary care. British Medical Journal 305, 160164.

MA Burke , K Goodkin (1997). Stress and the development of breast cancer: a persistent and popular link despite contrary evidence. Cancer 79, 10551059.

KA Cagney , DS Lauderdale (2002). Education, wealth, and cognitive function in later life. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 57, P163P172.

PJ Caplan (1997). Gender Differences in Human Cognition. Oxford University Press: New York.

E Charles , V Bouby-Serieys , P Thomas , JP Clement (2006). Links between life events, traumatism and dementia: an open study including 565 patients with dementia. Encephale 32, 746752.

IJ Deary , MC Whiteman , A Pattie , JM Starr , C Hayward , AF Wright , A Carothers , LJ Whalley (2002). Cognitive change and the APOE epsilon 4 allele. Nature 418, 932.

JJ Denissen , R Geenen , MA van Aken , SD Gosling , J Potter (2008). Development and validation of a Dutch translation of the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Journal of Personality Assessment 90, 152157.

SR de Rooij , MV Veenendaal , K Raikkonen , TJ Roseboom (2012). Personality and stress appraisal in adults prenatally exposed to the Dutch famine. Early Human Development 88, 321325.

L Helmuth (2002). Neuroscience. A generation gap in brain activity. Science 296, 21312133.

JR Hodges (2007). Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

L Johansson , X Guo , M Waern , S Ostling , D Gustafson , C Bengtsson , I Skoog (2010). Midlife psychological stress and risk of dementia: a 35-year longitudinal population study. Brain 133, 22172224.

LE Klein , RP Roca , J McArthur , G Vogelsang , GB Klein , SM Kirby , M Folstein (1985). Diagnosing dementia. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the mental status examination. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 33, 483488.

S Kuhlmann , M Piel , OT Wolf (2005). Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Journal of Neuroscience 25, 29772982.

S Lee , I Kawachi , LF Berkman , F Grodstein (2003). Education, other socioeconomic indicators, and cognitive function. American Journal of Epidemiology 157, 712720.

SJ Lupien , S Gaudreau , BM Tchiteya , F Maheu , S Sharma , NP Nair , RL Hauger , BS McEwen , MJ Meaney (1997). Stress-induced declarative memory impairment in healthy elderly subjects: relationship to cortisol reactivity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 20702075.

SJ Lupien , F Maheu , M Tu , A Fiocco , TE Schramek (2007). The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: implications for the field of brain and cognition. Brain and Cognition 65, 209237.

RE Marioni , M Chatfield , C Brayne , FE Matthews (2011). The reliability of assigning individuals to cognitive states using the Mini-Mental State Examination: a population-based prospective cohort study. BMC Medical Research Methodology 11, 127.

FE Matthews , BC Stephan , KT Khaw , S Hayat , R Luben , A Bhaniani , S Moore , C Brayne (2011). Full-scale scores of the Mini Mental State Examination can be generated from an abbreviated version. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64, 10051013.

BS McEwen , RM Sapolsky (1995). Stress and cognitive function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 5, 205216.

CA McHorney , Jr. JE Ware , AE Raczek (1993). The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Medical Care 31, 247263.

CJ Merz , OT Wolf , J Hennig (2010). Stress impairs retrieval of socially relevant information. Behavioral Neuroscience 124, 288293.

K Mizoguchi , T Kunishita , DH Chui , T Tabira (1992). Stress induces neuronal death in the hippocampus of castrated rats. Neuroscience Letters 138, 157160.

JY Park , PN Mitrou , RH Keogh , RN Luben , NJ Wareham , KT Khaw (2011). Effects of body size and sociodemographic characteristics on differences between self-reported and measured anthropometric data in middle-aged men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 357367.

GM Peavy , DP Salmon , MW Jacobson , A Hervey , AC Gamst , T Wolfson , TL Patterson , S Goldman , PJ Mills , S Khandrika , D Galasko (2009). Effects of chronic stress on memory decline in cognitively normal and mildly impaired older adults. American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 13841391.

G Persson , I Skoog (1996). A prospective population study of psychosocial risk factors for late onset dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11, 1522.

MA Price , CC Tennant , PN Butow , RC Smith , SJ Kennedy , MB Kossoff , SM Dunn (2001). The role of psychosocial factors in the development of breast carcinoma: Part II. Life event stressors, social support, defense style, and emotional control and their interactions. Cancer 91, 686697.

CB Rosnick , BJ Small , CL McEvoy , AR Borenstein , JA Mortimer (2007). Negative life events and cognitive performance in a population of older adults. Journal of Aging and Health 19, 612629.

C Sandi , MT Pinelo-Nava (2007). Stress and memory: behavioral effects and neurobiological mechanisms. Neural Plasticity 2007, 78970.

W Schlotz , IS Yim , PM Zoccola , L Jansen , P Schulz (2011). The Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale: measurement invariance, stability, and validity in three countries. Psychological Assessment 23, 8094.

TJ Shors , C Weiss , RF Thompson (1992). Stress-induced facilitation of classical conditioning. Science 257, 537539.

SA Stansfeld , H Bosma , H Hemingway , MG Marmot (1998). Psychosocial work characteristics and social support as predictors of SF-36 health functioning: the Whitehall II study. Psychosomatic Medicine 60, 247255.

RS Stawski , MJ Sliwinski , JM Smyth (2006). Stress-related cognitive interference predicts cognitive function in old age. Psychology and Aging 21, 535544.

PG Surtees , NW Wainwright (2007). The shackles of misfortune: social adversity assessment and representation in a chronic-disease epidemiological setting. Social Science and Medicine 64, 95111.

PG Surtees , NW Wainwright , C Brayne (2000). Psychosocial aetiology of chronic disease: a pragmatic approach to the assessment of lifetime affective morbidity in an EPIC component study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54, 114122.

PG Surtees , NW Wainwright , KT Khaw (2004). Obesity, confidant support and functional health: cross-sectional evidence from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28, 748758.

PG Surtees , NW Wainwright , KT Khaw , NE Day (2003). Functional health status, chronic medical conditions and disorders of mood. British Journal of Psychiatry 183, 299303.

PG Surtees , NW Wainwright , RN Luben , KT Khaw , SA Bingham (2010). No evidence that social stress is associated with breast cancer incidence. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 120, 169174.

PG Surtees , NW Wainwright , RN Luben , NJ Wareham , SA Bingham , KT Khaw (2008). Depression and ischemic heart disease mortality: evidence from the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom prospective cohort study. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 515523.

M Tsolaki , V Papaliagkas , F Kounti , C Messini , M Boziki , G Anogianakis , N Vlaikidis (2010). Severely stressful events and dementia: a study of an elderly Greek demented population. Psychiatry Research 176, 5154.

DD VonDras , MR Powless , AK Olson , D Wheeler , AL Snudden (2005). Differential effects of everyday stress on the episodic memory test performances of young, mid-life, and older adults. Aging and Mental Health 9, 6070.

NW Wainwright , PG Surtees (2004). Places, people, and their physical and mental functional health. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 58, 333339.

L Ward , JL Mathias , SE Hitchings (2007). Relationships between bereavement and cognitive functioning in older adults. Gerontology 53, 362372.

Jr. JE Ware , CD Sherbourne (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care 30, 473483.

RS Wilson , SE Arnold , JA Schneider , JF Kelly , Y Tang , DA Bennett (2006). Chronic psychological distress and risk of Alzheimer's disease in old age. Neuroepidemiology 27, 143153.

RS Wilson , SE Arnold , JA Schneider , Y Li , DA Bennett (2007 a). Chronic distress, age-related neuropathology, and late-life dementia. Psychosomatic Medicine 69, 4753.

RS Wilson , LL Barnes , DA Bennett , Y Li , JL Bienias , CF Mendes de Leon , DA Evans (2005). Proneness to psychological distress and risk of Alzheimer disease in a biracial community. Neurology 64, 380382.

RS Wilson , DA Evans , JL Bienias , CF Mendes de Leon , JA Schneider , DA Bennett (2003). Proneness to psychological distress is associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 61, 14791485.

RS Wilson , JA Schneider , PA Boyle , SE Arnold , Y Tang , DA Bennett (2007 b). Chronic distress and incidence of mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 68, 20852092.

EY Yuen , W Liu , IN Karatsoreos , J Feng , BS McEwen , Z Yan (2009). Acute stress enhances glutamatergic transmission in prefrontal cortex and facilitates working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106, 1407514079.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: