Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 17
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Feingold, Daniel Weiser, Mark Rehm, Jürgen and Lev-Ran, Shaul 2016. The association between cannabis use and anxiety disorders: Results from a population-based representative sample. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 493.


    Kang, Yu-ting Yao, Yan Dou, Jing Guo, Xin Li, Shu-yue Zhao, Cai-ning Han, Hong-zhi and Li, Bo 2016. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Maternal Anxiety in Late Pregnancy in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 13, Issue. 5, p. 468.


    Pine, Daniel S. and Klein, Rachel G. 2015. Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.


    Sandelin, R. Kowalski, J. Ahnemark, E. and Allgulander, C. 2013. Treatment patterns and costs in patients with generalised anxiety disorder: One-year retrospective analysis of data from national registers in Sweden. European Psychiatry, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 125.


    Wu, Chung-Hsuen Wang, Chi-Chuan Katz, Aaron Jacob and Farley, Joel 2013. National trends of psychotropic medication use among patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders: Results from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004–2009. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 163.


    Maack, Danielle J. Tull, Matthew T. and Gratz, Kim L. 2012. Examining the incremental contribution of behavioral inhibition to generalized anxiety disorder relative to other Axis I disorders and cognitive-emotional vulnerabilities. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 26, Issue. 6, p. 689.


    Revicki, Dennis A. Travers, Karin Wyrwich, Kathleen W. Svedsäter, Henrik Locklear, Julie Mattera, Maria Stoeckl Sheehan, David V. and Montgomery, Stuart 2012. Humanistic and economic burden of generalized anxiety disorder in North America and Europe. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 140, Issue. 2, p. 103.


    Newman, Michelle G. Przeworski, Amy Fisher, Aaron J. and Borkovec, Thomas D. 2010. Diagnostic Comorbidity in Adults With Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Impact of Comorbidity on Psychotherapy Outcome and Impact of Psychotherapy on Comorbid Diagnoses. Behavior Therapy, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 59.


    Buckner, Julia D. and Turner, R. Jay 2009. Social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol use disorders: A prospective examination of parental and peer influences. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 100, Issue. 1-2, p. 128.


    Tull, Matthew T. Stipelman, Brooke A. Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn and Gratz, Kim L. 2009. An examination of recent non-clinical panic attacks, panic disorder, anxiety sensitivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in the prediction of generalized anxiety disorder in an analogue sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 275.


    Buckner, Julia D. Schmidt, Norman B. Lang, Alan R. Small, Jason W. Schlauch, Robert C. and Lewinsohn, Peter M. 2008. Specificity of social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol and cannabis dependence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 42, Issue. 3, p. 230.


    Montgomery, S. Chatamra, K. Pauer, L. Whalen, E. and Baldinetti, F. 2008. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in elderly people with generalised anxiety disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 193, Issue. 5, p. 389.


    Lieb, Roselind Becker, Eni and Altamura, Carlo 2005. The epidemiology of generalized anxiety disorder in Europe. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 15, Issue. 4, p. 445.


    O???Connell, Joan M. Novins, Douglas K. Beals, Janette and Spicer, Paul 2005. Disparities in Patterns of Alcohol Use Among Reservation-based and Geographically Dispersed American Indian Populations. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 107.


    Wang, JianLi 2004. A Longitudinal Population-Based Study of Treated and Untreated Major Depression. Medical Care, Vol. 42, Issue. 6, p. 543.


    Farvolden, Peter McBride, Carolina Bagby, R Michael and Ravitz, Paula 2003. A Web-Based Screening Instrument for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. e23.


    Pigott, Teresa A 2003. Anxiety disorders in women. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 621.


    ×

The effects of co-morbidity on the onset and persistence of generalized anxiety disorder in the ICPE surveys

  • R. C. KESSLER (a1), L. H. ANDRADE (a1), R. V. BIJL (a1), D. R. OFFORD (a1), O. V. DEMLER (a1) and D. J. STEIN (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291702006104
  • Published online: 01 October 2002
Abstract

Background. Although it is well known that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is highly co-morbid with other mental disorders, little is known about the extent to which earlier disorders predict the subsequent first onset and persistence of GAD. These associations are examined in the current report using data from four community surveys in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE).

Method. The surveys come from Brazil, Canada, the Netherlands and the United States. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess DSM-III-R anxiety, mood and substance use disorders in these surveys. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine the associations of retrospectively reported earlier disorders with first onset of GAD. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of the disorders with persistence of GAD.

Results. Six disorders predict first onset of GAD in all four surveys: agoraphobia, panic disorder, simple phobia, dysthymia, major depression and mania. With the exception of simple phobia, only respondents with active disorders have elevated risk of GAD. In the case of simple phobia, in comparison, respondents with a history of remitted disorder also have consistently elevated risk of GAD. Simple phobia is also the only disorder that predicts the persistence of GAD.

Conclusions. The causal processes linking temporally primary disorders to onset of GAD are likely to be state-dependent. History of simple phobia might be a GAD risk marker. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms involved in the relationship between simple phobia and subsequent GAD.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Dr Ronald C. Kessler, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, 180 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-5899, USA.
Footnotes
Hide All
More information on the International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) may be obtained from the http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/icpe.
Footnotes
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×