Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 12
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Burhan, Amer Marlatt, Nicole Palaniyappan, Lena Anazodo, Udunna and Prato, Frank 2015. Role of Hybrid Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Diagnostics, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 577.

    Agerbo, Esben Mortensen, Preben B. Wiuf, Carsten Pedersen, Michael S. McGrath, John Hollegaard, Mads V. Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent Hougaard, David M. Mors, Ole and Pedersen, Carsten B. 2012. Modelling the contribution of family history and variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms to risk of schizophrenia: A Danish national birth cohort-based study. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 134, Issue. 2-3, p. 246.

    Crow, TJ 2012. Schizophrenia as variation in the sapiens-specific epigenetic instruction to the embryo. Clinical Genetics, Vol. 81, Issue. 4, p. 319.

    Pritchett, David Wulff, Katharina Oliver, Peter L. Bannerman, David M. Davies, Kay E. Harrison, Paul J. Peirson, Stuart N. and Foster, Russell G. 2012. Evaluating the links between schizophrenia and sleep and circadian rhythm disruption. Journal of Neural Transmission, Vol. 119, Issue. 10, p. 1061.

    Allardyce, Judith and van Os, Jim 2011. Textbook of Psychiatric Epidemiology.

    Hotta, Yuri Ohnuma, Tohru Hanzawa, Ryo Shibata, Nobuto Maeshima, Hitoshi Baba, Hajime Hatano, Tokiko Takebayashi, Yuto Kitazawa, Maiko Higa, Motoyuki Suzuki, Toshihito and Arai, Heii 2011. Association study between Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) and Japanese patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 35, Issue. 2, p. 636.

    Corvin, A. Craddock, N. and Sullivan, P. F. 2010. Genome-wide association studies: a primer. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 40, Issue. 07, p. 1063.

    Van Winkel, Ruud Esquivel, Gabriel Kenis, Gunter Wichers, Marieke Collip, Dina Peerbooms, Odette Rutten, Bart Myin-Germeys, Inez and Van Os, Jim 2010. REVIEW: Genome-Wide Findings in Schizophrenia and the Role of Gene-Environment Interplay. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, Vol. 16, Issue. 5, p. e185.

    Kirkbride, James Bowes and Scoriels, Linda 2009. Review of the 6th symposium for the search for the causes of schizophrenia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 3–6 February 2009. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol. 259, Issue. 8, p. 505.

    Need, A. C. Attix, D. K. McEvoy, J. M. Cirulli, E. T. Linney, K. L. Hunt, P. Ge, D. Heinzen, E. L. Maia, J. M. Shianna, K. V. Weale, M. E. Cherkas, L. F. Clement, G. Spector, T. D. Gibson, G. and Goldstein, D. B. 2009. A genome-wide study of common SNPs and CNVs in cognitive performance in the CANTAB. Human Molecular Genetics, Vol. 18, Issue. 23, p. 4650.

    Priddle, Tom H and Crow, Tim J 2009. The protocadherin11X/Ygene pair as a putative determinant of cerebral dominance inHomo sapiens. Future Neurology, Vol. 4, Issue. 4, p. 509.

    Sebat, Jonathan Levy, Deborah L. and McCarthy, Shane E. 2009. Rare structural variants in schizophrenia: one disorder, multiple mutations; one mutation, multiple disorders. Trends in Genetics, Vol. 25, Issue. 12, p. 528.


The emperors of the schizophrenia polygene have no clothes

  • T. J. Crow (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2008

A substantial body of research literature, identified by nine out of ten papers on genetics in the recent ISI research front on schizophrenia, claims to have established associations between aspects of the disease and sequence variation in specific candidate genes. These candidatures have proven unreplicated in large sibling pair linkage surveys and a targeted association study. Even if the case for an association be regarded as a lucky guess (assuming one gene in 30 000 was guessed right) the large linkage and association studies provide no evidence of sequence variation relating to psychosis at any of these gene loci. Thus this body of work must be regarded as an indicator of the extent to which the ‘eye of faith’ is able to discern meaning in complex data when none is present.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Professor T. J. Crow, SANE POWIC, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

JH Callicott , RE Straub , L Pezawas , MF Egan , VS Mattay , AR Hariri , BA Verchinski , A Meyer-Lindenberg , R Balkissoon , B Kolachana , TE Goldberg , DR Weinberger (2005). Variation in DISC1 affects hippocampal structure and function and increases risk for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102, 86278632.

TD Cannon , W Hennah , TGM van Erp , PM Thompson , J Lonnqvist , M Huttunen , T Gasperoni , A Tuulio-Henriksson , T Pirkola , AW Toga , J Kaprio , J Mazziotta , L Peltonen (2005). Association of DISC1/TRAX haploytpes with schizophrenia, reduced prefrontal gray matter, and impaired short- and long-term memory. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 12051213.

CR Cloninger (2002). The discovery of susceptibility genes for mental disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, 1336513367.

N Craddock , MC O'Donovan , MJ Owen (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics 42, 193204.

TJ Crow (1993). Sexual selection, Machiavellian intelligence and the origins of psychosis. Lancet 342, 594598.

TJ Crow (2007). How and why genetic linkage has not solved the problem of psychosis: review and hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1321.

JB Fan , CS Zhang , NF Gu , XW Li , WW Sun , HY Wang , GY Feng , DS Clair , L He (2005). Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene Val/Met functional polymorphism and risk of schizophrenia: a large-scale association study plus meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry 57, 139144.

EK Green , R Raybould , S McGregor , K Gordon-Smith , J Heron , S Hyde , D Grozeva , M Hamshere , N Williams , MJ Owen , MC O'Donovan , L Jones , I Jones , G Kirov , N Craddock (2005). Operation of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene, neuregulin 1, across traditional diagnostic boundaries to increase risk for bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 642648.

PJ Harrison , MJ Owen (2003). Genes for schizophrenia? Recent findings and their pathophysiological implications. Lancet 361, 417419.

PJ Harrison , DR Weinberger (2005). Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 4068.

T Hashimoto , SE Bergen , QL Nguyen , BJ Xu , LM Monteggia , JN Pierri , ZX Sun , AR Sampson , DA Lewis (2005). Relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB to altered inhibitory prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuroscience 25, 372383.

K Iwamoto , M Bundo , T Kato (2005). Altered expression of mitochondria-related genes in postmortem brains of patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, as revealed by large-scale DNA microarray analysis. Human Molecular Genetics 14, 241253.

JK Millar , BS Pickard , S Mackie , R James , S Christie , SR Buchanan , MP Malloy , JE Chubb , E Huston , GS Baillie , PA Thomson , EV Hill , NJ Brandon , JC Rain , LM Camargo , PJ Whiting , MD Houslay , DHR Blackwood , WJ Muir , DJ Porteous (2005). DISC1 and PDE4B are interacting genetic factors in schizophrenia that regulate cAMP signaling. Science 310, 11871191.

M Neves-Pereira , J Cheung , A Pasdar , F Zhang , G Breen , P Yates , M Sinclair , C Crombie , N Walker , DM St Clair (2005). BDNF gene is a risk factor for schizophrenia in a Scottish population. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 208212.

MJ Owen , N Craddock , A Jablensky (2007). The genetic deconstruction of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 905911.

MJ Owen , N Craddock , MC O'Donovan (2005). Schizophrenia: genes at last? Trends in Genetics 21, 518525.

MJ Owen , NM Williams , MC O'Donovan (2004). The molecular genetics of schizophrenia: new findings promise new insights. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 1427.

TL Petryshen , FA Middleton , A Kirby , KA Aldinger , S Purcell , AR Tahl , CP Morley , CP McGann , KL Gentile , GN Rockwell , HM Medeiros , C Carvalho , A Macedo , A Dourado , J Valente , CP Ferreira , NJ Patterson , MH Azevedo , MJ Daly , CN Pato , MT Pato , P Sklar (2005). Support for involvement of neuregulin 1 in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Molecular Psychiatry 10, 366374.

AR Sanders , J Duan , DF Levinson , J Shi , D He , C Hou , GJ Burrell , JP Rice , DA Nertney , A Olincy , P Rozic , S Vinogradov , NG Buccola , BJ Mowry , R Freedman , F Amin , DW Black , JM Silverman , WF Bylerley , RR Crowe , CR Cloninger , M Martinez , PV Gejman (2008). No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 497506.

RE Straub , DR Weinberger (2006). Schizophrenia genes – famine to feast. Biological Psychiatry 60, 8183.

JMA Turner (2007). Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Development 134, 18231831.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *