Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Open access
  • Cited by 7
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dyregrov, Kari Kristensen, Pål Johnsen, Iren and Dyregrov, Atle 2015. The psycho-social follow-up after the terror of July 22nd 2011 as experienced by the bereaved. Scandinavian Psychologist, Vol. 2,


    Dyregrov, Kari and Kristensen, Pål 2015. Utøya 22 July 2011 – psychosocial sequela for bereaved parents. Scandinavian Psychologist, Vol. 2,


    Kari, Dyregrov Kristensen, Pål Johnsen, Iren and Atle, Dyregrov 2014. The psycho-social follow-up after the terror of July 22nd 2011 as experienced by the bereaved. Scandinavian Psychologist, Vol. 1,


    Refsdal, Nils O. 2014. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, Vol. 5,


    Harris, Keith M. and Goh, Melissa Ting-Ting 2016. Is suicide assessment harmful to participants? Findings from a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing,


    Omerov, Pernilla Pettersen, Rossana Titelman, David Nyberg, Tommy Steineck, Gunnar Dyregrov, Atle and Nyberg, Ullakarin 2016. Encountering the Body at the Site of the Suicide: A Population-Based Survey in Sweden. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior,


    Wilcox, Holly C. Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor Kjeldgård, Linnea Alexanderson, Kristina and Runeson, Bo 2015. Functional impairment due to bereavement after the death of adolescent or young adult offspring in a national population study of 1,051,515 parents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Vol. 50, Issue. 8, p. 1249.


    ×

The ethics of doing nothing. Suicide-bereavement and research: ethical and methodological considerations

  • P. Omerov (a1) (a2), G. Steineck (a2) (a3), K. Dyregrov (a4) (a5), B. Runeson (a1) and U. Nyberg (a1) (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713001670
  • Published online: 19 July 2013
Abstract
Background.

Valuable trauma-related research may be hindered when the risks of asking participants about traumatic events are not carefully weighed against the benefits of their participation in the research.

Method.

The overall aim of our population-based survey was to improve the professional care of suicide-bereaved parents by identifying aspects of care that would be amenable to change. The study population included 666 suicide-bereaved and 377 matched (2:1) non-bereaved parents. In this article we describe the parents' perceptions of their contacts with us as well as their participation in the survey. We also present our ethical-protocol for epidemiological surveys in the aftermath of a traumatic loss.

Results.

We were able to contact 1410 of the 1423 eligible parents; eight of these parents expressed resentment towards the contact. Several participants and non-participants described their psychological suffering and received help because of the contact. A total of 666 suicide-bereaved and 377 non-bereaved parents returned the questionnaire. Just two out of the 1043 answered that they might, in the long term, be negatively affected by participation in the study; one was bereaved, the other was not. A significant minority of the parents reported being temporarily negatively affected at the end of their participation, most of them referring to feelings of sadness and painful memories. In parallel, positive experiences were widely expressed and most parents found the study valuable.

Conclusions.

Our findings suggest, given that the study design is ethically sound, that suicide-bereaved parents should be included in research since the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The ethics of doing nothing. Suicide-bereavement and research: ethical and methodological considerations
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The ethics of doing nothing. Suicide-bereavement and research: ethical and methodological considerations
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The ethics of doing nothing. Suicide-bereavement and research: ethical and methodological considerations
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/>.
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: P. Omerov, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Z5:U1, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden. (Email: Pernilla.Omerov@ki.se)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

AK Alderman , B Salem (2010). Survey research. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 126, 13811389.

KA Becker-Blease , JJ Freyd (2006). Research participants telling the truth about their lives: the ethics of asking and not asking about abuse. American Psychologist 61, 218226.

S Clark (2001). Bereavement after suicide – how far have we come and where do we go from here? Crisis 22, 102108.

K Dyregrov (2004). Bereaved parents' experience of research participation. Social Science and Medicine 58, 391400.

K Dyregrov , G Dieserud , H Hjelmeland , M Straiton , ML Rasmussen , BL Knizek , AA Leenaars (2011). Meaning making through psychological autopsy interviews. The value of participating in qualitative research for those bereaved by suicide. Death Studies 35, 685710.

K Dyregrov , G Dieserud , M Straiton , ML Rasmussen , H Hjelmeland , BL Knizek , AA Leenaars (2010). Motivation for research participation among people bereaved by suicide. Omega (Westport) 62, 149168.

K Dyregrov , A Dyregrov , M Raundalen (2000). Refugee families' experience of research participation. Journal of Traumatic Stress 13, 413426.

PJ Edwards , I Roberts , MJ Clarke , C Diguiseppi , R Wentz , I Kwan , R Cooper , LM Felix , S Pratap (2009). Methods to increase response to postal and electronic questionnaires. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3. Art. No.: MR000008. doi:10.1002/14651858.MR000008.pub4.

S Galea , A Nandi , J Stuber , J Gold , R Acierno , CL Best , M Bucuvalas , S Rudenstine , JA Boscarino , H Resnick (2005). Participant reactions to survey research in the general population after terrorist attacks. Journal of Traumatic Stress 18, 461465.

MH Groot , J Keijser , J Neeleman (2006). Grief shortly after suicide and natural death: a comparative study among spouses and first-degree relatives. Suicide and Life Threatening Behaviour 36, 418431.

A Hauksdóttir , G Steineck , CJ Fürst , U Valdimarsdóttir (2006). Towards better measurements in bereavement research: order of questions and assessed psychological morbidity. Palliative Medicine 20, 1116.



U Kreicbergs , U Valdimarsdóttir , E Onelöv , JI Henter , G Steineck (2004 a). Talking about death with children who have severe malignant disease. New England Journal of Medicine 351, 11751186.

U Kreicbergs , U Valdimarsdóttir , G Steineck , JI Henter (2004 b). A population based nationwide study of parents’ perceptions of a questionnaire on their child's death due to cancer. Lancet 364, 787789.

K Kroenke , RL Spitzer , JB Williams (2001). The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16, 606613.

J-P Legerski , SL Bunnell (2010). The risks, benefits, and ethics of trauma-focused research participation. Ethics and Behavior 20, 429442.

J Li , TM Laursen , DH Precht , J Olsen , PB Mortensen (2005). Hospitalization for mental illness among parents after the death of a child. New England Journal of Medicine 352, 11901196.

JF Ludvigsson , P Otterblad-Olausson , BU Pettersson , A Ekbom (2009). The Swedish personal identity number: possibilities and pitfalls in healthcare and medical research. European Journal of Epidemiology 24, 659667.

P Omerov , G Steineck , B Runeson , A Christensson , U Kreicbergs , R Pettersen , B Rubenson , J Skoogh , I Rådestad , U Nyberg (2013). Preparatory studies to a population-based survey of suicide-bereaved parents in Sweden. Crisis 34, 200210.

I Rådestad , PJ Surkan , G Steineck , S Cnattingius , E Onelöv , PW Dickman (2007). Long term outcomes for mothers who have or have not held their stillborn baby. Midwifery 25, 422429.

B Runeson , J Beskow (1991). Reactions of survivors of suicide victims to interviews. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 83, 169173.

G Steineck , H Hunt , J Adolfsson (2006). A hierarchical step-model for causation of bias evaluating cancer treatment with epidemiological methods. Acta Oncologica 45, 421429.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: