Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 169
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ding, Xiaoxiao Guo, Ying Ni, Yongnian and Kokot, Serge 2016. A novel NIR spectroscopic method for rapid analyses of lycopene, total acid, sugar, phenols and antioxidant activity in dehydrated tomato samples. Vibrational Spectroscopy, Vol. 82, p. 1.

    Julia, Chantal Méjean, Caroline Touvier, Mathilde Péneau, Sandrine Lassale, Camille Ducrot, Pauline Hercberg, Serge and Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle 2016. Validation of the FSA nutrient profiling system dietary index in French adults—findings from SUVIMAX study. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 55, Issue. 5, p. 1901.

    Kamiloglu, Senem Toydemir, Gamze Boyacioglu, Dilek Beekwilder, Jules Hall, Robert D. and Capanoglu, Esra 2016. A Review on the Effect of Drying on Antioxidant Potential of Fruits and Vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 56, Issue. sup1, p. S110.

    Liu, Siyu Liu, Yan Huang, Xingjian Yang, Wenjin Hu, Wanfeng and Pan, Siyi 2016. Effect of ultrasonic processing on the changes in activity, aggregation and the secondary and tertiary structure of polyphenol oxidase in oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melovar.makuwaMakino). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture,

    Mogren, Lars M Beacham, Andrew M Reade, John P H and Monaghan, James M 2016. Moderate water stress prevents the postharvest decline of ascorbic acid in spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) but not in spinach beet (Beta vulgarisL.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 96, Issue. 9, p. 2976.

    Muhammad, Gulzar Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz Jantan, Ibrahim and Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas 2016. Mimosa pudicaL., a High-Value Medicinal Plant as a Source of Bioactives for Pharmaceuticals. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 303.

    Ni, Yinhua Zhuge, Fen Nagashimada, Mayumi and Ota, Tsuguhito 2016. Novel Action of Carotenoids on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Macrophage Polarization and Liver Homeostasis. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 7, p. 391.

    Niu, Jianjun Lin, Yong Guo, Zhinan Niu, Mu and Su, Chenghao 2016. The Epidemiological Investigation on the Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Medicine, Vol. 95, Issue. 6, p. e2758.

    Palma, Marco A. Ribera, Luis A. and Knutson, Ronald D. 2016. The Era of the Functional Consumer. Journal of Food Products Marketing, p. 1.

    Pounis, G Di Castelnuovo, A Bonaccio, M Costanzo, S Persichillo, M Krogh, V Donati, M B de Gaetano, G and Iacoviello, L 2016. Flavonoid and lignan intake in a Mediterranean population: proposal for a holistic approach in polyphenol dietary analysis, the Moli-sani Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, Issue. 3, p. 338.

    Abnet, Christian C. Corley, Douglas A. Freedman, Neal D. and Kamangar, Farin 2015. Diet and Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies. Gastroenterology, Vol. 148, Issue. 6, p. 1234.

    Alshahrani, Saad Agarwal, Ashok Collins, David and Wang, Sebo 2015. Nutrition, Fertility, and Human Reproductive Function.

    Azoubel, Patrícia Moreira da Rocha Amorim, Mariana Oliveira, Sofia Sorelly Belém Maciel, Maria Inês Sucupira and Rodrigues, João Domingos 2015. Improvement of Water Transport and Carotenoid Retention During Drying of Papaya by Applying Ultrasonic Osmotic Pretreatment. Food Engineering Reviews, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 185.

    Gu, Mu Chen, Hui-Ping Zhao, Mou-Ming Wang, Xi Yang, Bao Ren, Jiao-Yan and Su, Guo-Wan 2015. Identification of antioxidant peptides released from defatted walnut (Juglans Sigillata Dode) meal proteins with pancreatin. LWT - Food Science and Technology, Vol. 60, Issue. 1, p. 213.

    Jabbari, Morteza and Moallem, Hamid Reza 2015. Effect of solute–solvent interactions on DPPH radical scavenging efficiency of some flavonoid antioxidants in various binary water–methanol mixtures. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 93, Issue. 5, p. 558.

    Kong, So Yeon Goodman, Michael Judd, Suzanne Bostick, Roberd M. Flanders, W. Dana and McClellan, William 2015. Oxidative balance score as predictor of all-cause, cancer, and noncancer mortality in a biracial US cohort. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 256.

    Woodside, Jayne V. McGrath, Alanna J. Lyner, Natalie and McKinley, Michelle C. 2015. Carotenoids and health in older people. Maturitas, Vol. 80, Issue. 1, p. 63.

    Zampelas, Antonis and Dimakopoulos, Ioannis 2015. Antioxidants in Health and Disease.

    Atabo, Samuel Bolanle, James Dorcas Aisha, Mamman and Alhaji, Umar Ismaila 2014. Bio-content of Telferia occidentalis and their effect on methemoglobin formation in sickled erythrocytes. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 7, p. S262.

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær and Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard 2014. Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease.


A review of the epidemiological evidence for the ‘antioxidant hypothesis’

  • SA Stanner (a1), J Hughes (a2), CNM Kelly (a1) and J Buttriss (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2007

The British Nutrition Foundation was recently commissioned by the Food Standards Agency to conduct a review of the government's research programme on Antioxidants in Food. Part of this work involved an independent review of the scientific literature on the role of antioxidants in chronic disease prevention, which is presented in this paper.


There is consistent evidence that diets rich in fruit and vegetables and other plant foods are associated with moderately lower overall mortality rates and lower death rates from cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. The ‘antioxidant hypothesis’ proposes that vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and other antioxidant nutrients afford protection against chronic diseases by decreasing oxidative damage.


Although scientific rationale and observational studies have been convincing, randomised primary and secondary intervention trials have failed to show any consistent benefit from the use of antioxidant supplements on cardiovascular disease or cancer risk, with some trials even suggesting possible harm in certain subgroups. These trials have usually involved the administration of single antioxidant nutrients given at relatively high doses. The results of trials investigating the effect of a balanced combination of antioxidants at levels achievable by diet are awaited.


The suggestion that antioxidant supplements can prevent chronic diseases has not been proved or consistently supported by the findings of published intervention trials. Further evidence regarding the efficacy, safety and appropriate dosage of antioxidants in relation to chronic disease is needed. The most prudent public health advice remains to increase the consumption of plant foods, as such dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk of chronic disease.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A review of the epidemiological evidence for the ‘antioxidant hypothesis’
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A review of the epidemiological evidence for the ‘antioxidant hypothesis’
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A review of the epidemiological evidence for the ‘antioxidant hypothesis’
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

4J Mares-Perlman , WE Brady , BE Klein , R Klein , GJ Haus , M Palta , Diet and nuclear lens opacities. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 141: 322–34.

7C La Vecchia , A Decarli , R Pagano . Vegetable consumption and risk of chronic disease. Epidemiology 1998; 9: 208–10.

9D Steinberg . Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1997; 272(34): 20963–6.

13MG Hertog , D Kromhout , C Aravanis , H Blackburn , R Buzina , F Fidanza , Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the Seven Countries Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995; 155: 381–6.

15R Beaglehole , R Jackson , J Watkinson , R Scragg , R Yee . Decreased blood selenium and risk of myocardial infarction. International Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 19: 918–22.

17M Stampfer , C Hennekens , J Manson , G Colditz , B Rosner , W Willett . Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine 1993; 328(20): 1444–9.

18E Rimm , M Stampfer , A Ascherio , E Giovannucci , G Colditz , W Willett . Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. New England Journal of Medicine 1993; 328: 1450–6.

20L Kushi , A Folsom , R Prineas , P Mink , Y Wu , R Bostick . Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334: 1156–62.

22J Gaziano , C Hennekens . The role of beta-carotene in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993; 691: 148–55.

23W Christen , J Gaziano , C Hennekens . Design of Physicians' Health Study II – a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Annals of Epidemiology 2000; 10(2): 125–34.

24JE Manson , JM Gaziano , MA Jonas , CH Hennekens . Antioxidants and cardiovascular disease: a review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1993; 12: 426–32.

25JT Salonen , K Nyyssonen , R Salonen , HM Lakka , J Kaikkonen , E Porkkala-Sarataho , Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Journal of Internal Medicine 2000; 248(5): 377–86.

27D Street , G Comstock , R Salkeld , W Schuep , M Klag . Serum antioxidants and myocardial infarction. Are low levels of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol risk factors for myocardial infarction? Circulation 1994; 90(3): 1154–61.

30KT Khaw , S Bingham , A Welch , R Luben , N Wareham , S Oakes , Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC–Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lancet 2001; 357(9257): 657–63.

31J Muntwyler , CH Hennekens , JE Manson , JE Buring , JM Gaziano . Vitamin supplement use in a low-risk population of US male physicians and subsequent cardiovascular mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine 2002; 162(13): 1472–6.

34TA Miettinen , G Alfthan , JK Huttunen , J Pikkarainen , V Naukkarinen , S Mattila , Serum selenium concentration related to myocardial infarction and fatty acid content of serum lipids. British Medical Journal 1983; 287: 517–9.

36S Salvini , C Hennekens , J Morris , W Willett , M Stampfer . Plasma levels of the antioxidant selenium and risk of myocardial infarction among US physicians. American Journal of Cardiology 1995; 76: 1218–21.

38P Hollman , M Katan . Health effects and bioavailability of dietary flavonols. Free Radical Research 1999; 31: S7580.

39W Blot , JY Li , PR Taylor , W Guo , S Dawsey , GQ Wang , Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993; 85: 1483–92.

40The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 330: 1029–35.

41JM Leppala , J Virtamo , R Fogelholm , JK Huttonen , D Albanes , PR Taylor , Controlled trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on stroke incidence and mortality in male smokers. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2000; 20(1): 230–5.

42GS Omenn , GE Goodman , MD Thornquist , J Balmes , MR Cullen , A Glass , Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334: 1150–5.

43CH Hennekens , JE Buring , JE Manson , M Stampfer , B Rosner , NR Cook , Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334(18): 1145–9.

44IM Lee , NR Cook , JE Manson , JE Buring , CH Hennekens . Beta-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91(24): 2102–6.

46N De Klerk , AW Musk , GL Ambrosini , JL Eccles , J Hansen , N Olsen , Vitamin A and cancer prevention II: comparison of the effects of retinol and beta-carotene. International Journal of Cancer 1998;75(3): 362–7.

47E Greenberg , JA Baron , MR Karagas , TA Stukel , DW Nierenberg , MM Stevens , Mortality associated with low plasma concentration of beta carotene and effect of oral supplementation. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996; 275(9): 699703.

49J Rapola , J Virtamo , S Ripatti , JK Huttunen , D Albanes , PR Taylor , Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet 1997; 349(9067): 1715–20.

50JM Rapola , J Virtamo , S Ripatti , JK Haukka , JK Huttunen , D Albanes , Effects of alpha tocopherol and beta carotene supplements on symptoms, progression, and prognosis of angina pectoris. Heart 1998; 79(5): 454–8.

51N Stephens , A Parsons , P Schofield , F Kelly , K Cheeseman , M Mitchinson . Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 1996; 347: 781–6.

52GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Dietary supplementation with n –3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results from the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet 1999; 354: 447–55.

55JE Manson , JM Gaziano , A Spelsberg , PM Ridker , NR Cook , JE Buring , A secondary prevention trial of antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease in women. Rationale, design, and methods. The WACS Research Group. Annals of Epidemiology 1995; 5(4): 261–9.

56Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 2333.

57M Boaz , S Smetana , T Weinstein , Z Matas , V Gafter , A Iaina , Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2000; 356: 1213–8.

58HN Hodis , WJ Mack , L LaBree , L Cahin-Hemphill , A Sevanian , R Johnson , Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 273(23): 1849–54.

59JC Fang , S Kinlay , J Beltrame , H Hikiti , M Wainstein , D Behrendt , Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial. Lancet 2002; 359: 1108–13.

60M Tornwall , J Virtamo , J Haukka , D Albanes , J Huttunen . Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and beta-carotene supplementation does not affect the risk for large abdominal aortic aneurysm in a controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 2001; 157(1): 167–73.

61M Tornwall , J Virtamo , J Haukka , A Aro , D Albanes , J Huttunen . The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on symptoms and progression of intermittent claudication in a controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 1999; 147(1): 193–7.

62D Vivekananthan , MS Penn , SK Sapp , A Hsu , EJ Topol . Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 2003; 361(9374): 2017–23.

63R Marchioli . Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of cardiovascular disease: laboratory, epidemiological and clinical trial data. Pharmacological Research 1999; 40: 227–38.

64K Asplund . Antioxidant vitamins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Journal of Internal Medicine 2002; 251: 372–92.

65C Morris , S Carson . Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine 2003; 139(1): 5670.

67R Ziegler , E Colavito , P Hartge , MJ McAdams , JB Schoenberg , TJ Mason , Importance of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and other phytochemicals in the etiology of lung cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1996; 88(9): 612–5.

68I Lee . Antioxidant vitamins in the prevention of cancer. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians 1999; 111: 10–5.

71GR Howe , T Hirohata , TG Hislop , JM Iscovich , JM Yuan , K Katsouyanni , Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case – control studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1990; 82: 561–9.

75P Knekt , J Marniemi , L Teppo , M Heliovaara , A Aromaa . Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer? American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 148: 975–82.

77P Knekt , A Aromaa , J Maatela , G Alfthan , RK Aaran , M Hakama , Serum selenium and subsequent risk of cancer among Finnish men and women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1990; 82: 864–8.

78K Yoshizawa , WC Willett , SJ Morris , MJ Stampfer , D Spiegelman , EB Rimm , Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 1219–24.

79F Fernandez-Banares , E Cabre , M Esteve , MD Mingorance , A Abad-Lacruz , M Lachica , Serum selenium and risk of large size colorectal adenomas in a geographical area with a low selenium status. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2002; 97(8): 2103–8.

80P Knekt , R Jarvinen , R Seppanen , M Hellovaara , L Teppo , E Pukkala , Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997; 146(3): 223–30.

81T Hirvonen , J Virtamo , P Korhonen , D Albanes , P Pietinen . Flavonol and flavone intake and the risk of cancer in male smokers (Finland). Cancer Causes & Control 2001; 12: 789–96.

82M Hertog , E Feskens , P Hollman , M Katan , D Kromhout . Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Nutrition and Cancer 1994; 22: 175–84.

83I Arts , DJ Jacobs , L Harnack , M Gross , A Folsom . Dietary catechins in relation to coronary heart disease death amongst postmenopausal women. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 668–75.

84D Albanes , N Malila , PR Taylor , JK Huttunen , J Virtamo , BK Edwards , Effects of supplemental alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on colorectal cancer: results from a controlled trial (Finland). Cancer Causes & Control 2000; 11: 197205.

85J Virtamo , BK Edwards , M Virtanen , PR Taylor , N Malila , D Albanes , Effects of supplemental alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on urinary tract cancer: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial (Finland). Cancer Causes & Control 2000; 11(10): 933–9.

86MT Rautalahti , JR Virtamo , PR Taylor , OP Heinonen , D Albanes , JK Haukka , The effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on the incidence and mortality of carcinoma of the pancreas in a randomized, controlled trial. Cancer 1999; 86: 3742.

87UM Frieling , DA Schaumberg , TS Kupper , J Muntwyler , CH Hennekens . A randomized, 12-year primary-prevention trial of beta carotene supplementation for nonmelanoma skin cancer in the Physician's Health Study. Archives of Dermatology 2000; 136(2): 179–84.

88A Green , G Williams , R Neale , V Hart , D Leslie , P Parsons , Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999 354: 723–9.

91ER Greenberg , JA Baron , TA Stukel , MM Stevens , JS Mandel , SK Spencer , A clinical trial of beta carotene to prevent basal-cell and squamous-cell cancers of the skin. The Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 1990; 323: 789–95.

92LC Clark , GF Combs Jr, BW Turnbull , EH Slate , DK Chalker , J Chow , Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996; 276: 1957–63.

93LC Clark , B Dalkin , A Krongrad , GF Combs Jr, RW Turnbull , EH Slate , Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. British Journal of Urology 1998; 81: 730–4.

94D Albanes , OP Heinonen , PR Taylor , J Virtamo , BK Edwards , M Rautalahti , Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1996; 88: 1560–70.

96P Rowe . Beta-carotene takes a collective beating. Lancet 1996; 347(8996): 249.

97S Darlington , G Williams , R Neale , C Frost , A Green . A randomized controlled trial to assess sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in the prevention of solar keratoses. Archives of Dermatology 2003; 139(4): 451–5.

98P Cerutti . Oxy-radicals and cancer. Lancet 1994; 344: 862–3.

101ER Greenberg , JA Baron , TD Tosteson , DH Freeman Jr, GS Beck , JH Bond , A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. Polyp Prevention Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 331: 141–7.

104OP Heinonen , D Albanes , J Virtamo , PR Taylor , JK Huttunen , AM Hartman , Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90(6): 440–6.

108B Hofstad , M Vatn , S Andersen , R Owen , S Larsen , M Osnes . The relationship between faecal bile acid profile with or without supplementation with calcium and antioxidants on recurrence and growth of colorectal polyps. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 1998; 7(4): 287–94.

109S Yu , YJ Zhu , WG Li , QS Huang , CZ Huang , QN Zhang , A preliminary report on the intervention trials of primary liver cancer in high-risk populations with nutritional supplementation of selenium in China. Biological Trace Element Research 1991; 29: 289–94.

110S Yu , J Zhu , W Li . Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biological Trace Element Research 1997; 56: 117–24.

112AJ Duffield-Lillico , BL Dalkin , ME Reid , BW Turnbull , EH Slate , ET Jacobs , Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU International 2003; 91(7): 608–12.

113F Forastiere , R Pistelli , P Sestini , C Fortes , E Renzoni , F Rusconi , Consumption of fresh fruit rich in vitamin C and wheezing symptoms in children. SIDRIA Collaborative Group, Italy (Italian Studies on Respiratory Disorders in Children and the Environment). Thorax 2000; 55: 283–8.

119G Hu , P Cassano . Antioxidant nutrients and pulmonary function: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151(10): 975–81.

120I Romieu , JJ Sienra-Monge , M Ramirez-Aguilar , MM Tellez-Rojo , H Moreno-Macias , NI Reyes-Ruiz , Antioxidant supplementation and lung functions among children with asthma exposed to high levels of air pollutants. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002; 166(5): 703–9.

121M Rautalahti , J Virtamo , J Haukka , OP Heinonen , J Sundvall , D Albanes , The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on COPD symptoms. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1997; 156(5): 1447–52.

123WG Christen , RJ Glynn , CH Hennekens . Antioxidants and age-related eye disease. Current and future perspectives. Annals of Epidemiology 1996; 6: 60–6.

125BJ Hammond , B Wooten , D Snodderly . Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration. Vision Research 1996; 36: 3003–9.

126S West , S Vitale , J Hallfrisch , B Munoz , D Muller , S Bressler , Are antioxidants or supplements protective for age-related macular degeneration? Archives of Ophthalmology 1994; 112(2): 222–7.

127C Delcourt , JP Cristol , F Tessier , CL Leger , B Descomps , L Papoz . Age-related macular degeneration and antioxidant status in the POLA study. POLA Study Group. Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l'Age. Archives of Ophthalmology 1999; 117: 1384–90.

128Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Archives of Ophthalmology 2001; 119(10): 1439–52.

129H Taylor , G Tikellis , LD Robman , CA McCarty , JJ McNeil . Vitamin E supplementation and macular degeneration: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2002; 325: 11.

131P Knekt , M Heliovaara , A Rissanen , A Aromaa , RK Aaran . Serum antioxidant vitamins and risk of cataract. British Medical Journal 1992; 305: 1392–4.

133PF Jacques , LT Chylack Jr, SE Hankinson , PM Khu , G Rogers , J Friend , Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities. Archives of Ophthalmology 2001; 119: 1009–19.

134B Lyle , J Mares-Perlman , B Klein , R Klein , J Greger . Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 149(9): 801–9.

135SE Hankinson , MJ Stampfer , JM Seddon , GA Colditz , B Rosner , FE Speizer , Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study. British Medical Journal 1992; 305(6849): 335–9.

137J Teikari , J Virtamo , M Rautalahti , J Palmgren , K Liesto , O Heinonen . Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and age-related cataract. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 1997; 75(6): 634–40.

138W Christen , JE Manson , RJ Glynn , JM Gaziano , RD Sperduto , JE Buring , A randomized trial of beta carotene and age-related cataract in US physicians. Archives of Ophthalmology 2003; 121: 372–8.

139B Brown , XQ Zhao , A Chait , LD Fisher , MC Cheung , JS Morse , Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345: 1583–92.

140W Pryor , W Stahl , CL Rock . Beta carotene: from biochemistry to clinical trials. Nutrition Reviews 2000; 58(2 Pt 1): 3953.

144D Steinberg . Clinical trials of antioxidants in atherosclerosis: are we doing the right thing? Lancet 1995; 346(8966): 36–8.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *