Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Achievement of dietary fatty acid intakes in long-term controlled intervention studies: approach and methodology

  • MC Nydahl (a1), RD Smith (a1), CNM Kelly (a1), BA Fielding (a2) and CM Williams (a1)...
Abstract
AbstractObjectives:

To describe the calculations and approaches used to design experimental diets of differing saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) compositions for use in a long-term dietary intervention study, and to evaluate the degree to which the dietary targets were met.

Design, setting and subjects:

Fifty-one students living in a university hall of residence consumed a reference (SFA) diet for 8 weeks followed by either a moderate MUFA (MM) diet or a high MUFA (HM) diet for 16 weeks. The three diets were designed to differ only in their proportions of SFA and MUFA, while keeping total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans-fatty acids, and the ratio of palmitic to stearic acid, and n – 6 to n – 3 PUFA, unchanged.

Results:

Using habitual diet records and a standardised database for food fatty acid compositions, a sequential process of theoretical fat substitutions enabled suitable fat sources for use in the three diets to be identified, and experimental margarines for baking, spreading and the manufacture of snack foods to be designed. The dietary intervention was largely successful in achieving the fatty acid targets of the three diets, although unintended differences between the original target and the analysed fatty acid composition of the experimental margarines resulted in a lower than anticipated MUFA intake on the HM diet, and a lower ratio of palmitic to stearic acid compared with the reference or MM diet.

Conclusions:

This study has revealed important theoretical considerations that should be taken into account when designing diets of specific fatty acid composition, as well as practical issues of implementation.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email c.m.williams@reading.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3 RP Mensink , MB Katan . Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis 1992; 12: 911–9.

8 M Aviram , K Eias . Dietary olive oil reduces low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages and decreases the susceptibility of the lipoprotein to undergo lipid peroxidation. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 1993; 37: 7584.

13 SM Grundy . Comparison of monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates for lowering plasma cholesterol. N. Engl. J. Med. 1986; 314: 745–8.

14 A Bonanome , SM Grundy . Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein on levels. N. Engl. J. Med. 1988; 318: 1244–8.

15 LM Valsta , M Jauhiainen , A Aro , MB Katan , M Mutanen . Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis 1992; 12: 50–7.

16 JME Knapper , JA Tredger , D Webb , C Culverwell , W Faulkner , H Roche , Substitution of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids for saturated fatty acids in a free-living population: a feasibility study. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 1996; 9: 273–82.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 35 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.