This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 AM Toschke , R Lüdde , R Eisele , R von Kries . The obesity epidemic in young men is not confined to low social classes – a time series of 18-year-old German men at medical examination for military service with different educational attainment. International Journal of Obesity 2005; 29: 875–7.
2 DS Freedman , SR Srinivasan , RA Valdez , DF Williamson , GS Berenson . Secular increases in relative weight and adiposity among children over two decades: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 1997; 99: 420–6.
3 CB Ebbeling , DB Pawlak , DS Ludwig . Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002; 360: 473–82.
4 B Koletzko , JP Girardet , W Klish , O Tabacco . Obesity in children and adolescents worldwide: current views and future directions – Working Group Report of the First World Congress of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2002; 35(Suppl. 2): S205–12.
5 E Charney , HC Goodman , M McBride , B Lyon , R Pratt . Childhood antecedents of adult obesity. Do chubby infants become obese adults? New England Journal of Medicine 1976; 295: 6–9.
6 J Eriksson , T Forsen , J Tuomilehto , C Osmond , D Barker . Size at birth, childhood growth and obesity in adult life. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2001; 25: 735–40.
7 AM Magarey , LA Daniels , TJ Boulton , RA Cockington . Predicting obesity in early adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2003; 27: 505–13.
8 DS Freedman , WH Dietz , SR Srinivasan , GS Berenson . The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 1999; 103: 1175–82.
9 AC Ravelli , JH van der Meulen , C Osmond , DJ Barker , OP Bleker . Infant feeding and adult glucose tolerance, lipid profile, blood pressure, and obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2000; 82: 248–52.
12 AM Toschke , H Küchenhoff , B Koletzko , R von Kries . Meal frequency and childhood obesity. Obesity Research 2005; 13: 1932–8.
14 TN Robinson . Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282: 1561–7.
16 AM Toschke , J Vignerova , L Lhotska , K Osancova , B Koletzko , R Von Kries . Overweight and obesity in 6- to 14-year-old Czech children in 1991: protective effect of breast-feeding. Journal of Pediatrics 2002; 141: 764–9.
17 R von Kries , B Koletzko , T Sauerwald , E von Mutius , D Barnert , V Grunert , . Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 1999; 319: 147–50.
18 MW Gillman , SL Rifas-Shiman , CA Camargo Jr, CS Berkey , AL Frazier , HR Rockett , . Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285: 2461–7.
19 S Arenz , R Ruckerl , B Koletzko , R von-Kries . Breast-feeding and childhood obesity – a systematic review. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2004; 28: 1247–56.
20 T Harder , R Bergmann , G Kallischnigg , A Plagemann . Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 2005; 162: 397–403.
21 AM Toschke , SM Montgomery , U Pfeiffer , R von Kries . Early intrauterine exposure to tobacco-inhaled products and obesity. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 158: 1068–74.
22 M Toschke , B Koletzko Jr, W Slikker , M Hermann , R Von Kries . Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy. European Journal of Pediatrics 2002; 161: 445–8.
23 R von Kries , AM Toschke , B Koletzko , W Slikker Jr. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. American Journal of Epidemiology 2002; 156: 954–61.
24 SM Montgomery , A Ekbom . Smoking during pregnancy and diabetes mellitus in a British longitudinal birth cohort. British Medical Journal 2002; 324: 26–7.
26 TJ Cole , MC Bellizzi , KM Flegal , WH Dietz . Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal 2000; 320: 1240–3.
27 F Rasmussen , M Johansson . The relation of weight, length and ponderal index at birth to body mass index and overweight among 18-year-old males in Sweden. European Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 14: 373–80.
29 AJ Stunkard , TI Sorensen , C Hanis , TW Teasdale , R Chakraborty , WJ Schull , . An adoption study of human obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 1986; 314: 193–8.
30 TM Achenbach , CS Edelbrock . Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged four through sixteen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 1981; 46: 1–82.
31 CJ Clopper , ES Pearson . The use of confidence or fiducial limits illustrated in the case of the binomial. Biometrika 1934; 26: 404–13.
32 J Benichou . A review of adjusted estimators of attributable risk. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2001; 10: 195–216.
34 DL Patrick , A Cheadle , DC Thompson , P Diehr , T Koepsell , S Kinne . The validity of self-reported smoking: a review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84: 1086–93.
36 AM Toschke , V Grote , B Koletzko , R von Kries . Identifying children at high risk for overweight at school entry by weight gain during the first 2 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2004; 158: 449–52.
37 N Stettler , BS Zemel , S Kumanyika , VA Stallings . Infant weight gain and childhood overweight status in a multicenter, cohort study. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 194–9.
38 KKL Ong , ML Ahmed , PM Emmett , MA Preece , DB Dunger . Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 2000; 320: 967–71.
39 RJ Hancox , BJ Milne , R Poulton . Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Lancet 2004; 364: 257–62.
41 J James , P Thomas , D Cavan , D Kerr . Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2004; 328: 1237.