1.Wardlaw, T, Blanc, A, Zupan, J & Åhman, E (2004) Low Birthweight: Country, Regional and Global Estimates. New York: UNICEF and WHO.
2.Hack, M, Klein, NK & Taylor, HG (1995) Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants. Future Child 5, 176–196.
3.Godfrey, KM & Barker, DJ (2001) Fetal programming and adult health. Public Health Nutr 4, 611–624.
4.Karim, E & Mascie-Taylor, CG (1997) The association between birthweight, sociodemographic variables and maternal anthropometry in an urban sample from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Ann Hum Biol 24, 387–401.
5.Lewis, C, Suffet, IH & Ritz, B (2006) Estimated effects of disinfection by-products on birth weight in a population served by a single water utility. Am J Epidemiol 163, 38–47.
6.Maroziene, L & Grazuleviciene, R (2002) Maternal exposure to low-level air pollution and pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study. Environ Health 1, 6.
7.Mavalankar, DV, Trivedi, CC & Gray, RH (1994) Maternal weight, height and risk of poor pregnancy outcome in Ahmedabad, India. Indian Pediatr 31, 1205–1212.
8.Mishra, V, Dai, X, Smith, KR & Mika, L (2004) Maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight in Zimbabwe. Ann Epidemiol 14, 740–747.
9.Ahluwalia, IB, GrummerStrawn, L & Scanlon, KS (1997) Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and birth outcome: increased effects on pregnant women aged 30 years or older. Am J Epidemiol 146, 42–47.
10.Han, S, Pfizenmaier, DH, Garcia, E, Eguez, ML, Ling, M, Kemp, FW & Bogden, JD (2000) Effects of lead exposure before pregnancy and dietary calcium during pregnancy on fetal development and lead accumulation. Environ Health Perspect 108, 527–531.
11.Gonzalez-Cossio, T, Peterson, KE, Sanin, LH, Fishbein, E, Palazuelos, E, Aro, A, Hernández-Avila, M & Hu, H (1997) Decrease in birth weight in relation to maternal bone-lead burden. Pediatrics 100, 856–862.
12.Awasthi, S, Awasthi, R & Srivastav, RC (2002) Maternal blood lead level and outcomes of pregnancy in Lucknow, North India. Indian Pediatr 39, 855–860.
13.Factor-Litvak, P, Graziano, JH, Kline, JK et al. (1991) A prospective study of birthweight and length of gestation in a population surrounding a lead smelter in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. Int J Epidemiol 20, 722–728.
14.Kramer, MS (2003) The epidemiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes: an overview. J Nutr 133, 1592S–1596S.
15.Iqbal, R, Rafique, G, Badruddin, S, Qureshi, R, Cue, R & Gray-Donald, K (2007) Increased body fat percentage and physical inactivity are independent predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asian women. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 736–742.
16.Taggart, NR, Holliday, RM, Billewicz, WZ, Hytten, FE & Thomson, AM (1967) Changes in skinfolds during pregnancy. Br J Nutr 21, 439–451.
17.Rahbar, MH, White, F, Agboatwalla, M, Hozhabri, S & Luby, S (2002) Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ 80, 769–775.
18.Ernhart, CB (1992) A critical review of low-level prenatal lead exposure in the human: 1. Effects on the fetus and newborn. Reprod Toxicol 6, 9–19.
19.Ricalde, AE, Velasquez-Melendez, G, Tanaka, AC & de Siqueira, AA (1998) Mid-upper arm circumference in pregnant women and its relation to birth weight. Rev Saude Publica 32, 112–117.
20.Ogbonna, C, Woelk, GB, Ning, Y, Mudzamiri, S, Mahomed, K & Williams, MA (2007) Maternal mid-arm circumference and other anthropometric measures of adiposity in relation to infant birth size among Zimbabwean women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86, 26–32.
21.Bisai, S, Mahalanabis, D, Sen, A, Bose, K & Datta, N (2007) Maternal early second trimester pregnancy weight in relation to birth outcome among Bengalee Hindus of Kolkata, India. Ann Hum Biol 34, 91–101.
22.Rao, S, Yajnik, CS, Kanade, A et al. (2001) Intake of micronutrient-rich foods in rural Indian mothers is associated with the size of their babies at birth: Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. J Nutr 131, 1217–1224.
23.Mathews, F, Yudkin, P & Neil, A (1999) Influence of maternal nutrition on outcome of pregnancy: prospective cohort study. BMJ 319, 339–343.
24.Lee, BE, Hong, YC, Lee, KH, Kim, YJ, Kim, WK, Chang, NS, Park, EA, Park, HS & Hann, HJ (2004) Influence of maternal serum levels of vitamins C and E during the second trimester on birth weight and length. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1365–1371.
25.Wang, Y & Walsh, SW (2001) Increased superoxide generation is associated with decreased superoxide dismutase activity and mRNA expression in placental trophoblast cells in pre-eclampsia. Placenta 22, 206–212.
26.Scholl, TO & Stein, TP (2001) Oxidant damage to DNA and pregnancy outcome. J Matern Fetal Med 10, 182–185.
27.Abdelmoneim, I (2004) A study of determinants of low birth weight in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Afr J Med Med Sci 33, 145–148.
28.Blondel, B & Marshall, B (1998) Poor antenatal care in 20 French districts: risk factors and pregnancy outcome. J Epidemiol Community Health 52, 501–506.
29.Raatikainen, K, Heiskanen, N & Heinonen, S (2007) Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. BMC Public Health 7, 268.
30.Barros, H, Tavares, M & Rodrigues, T (1996) Role of prenatal care in preterm birth and low birthweight in Portugal. J Public Health Med 18, 321–328.
31.Fujita, N, Matsui, M, Srey, S, Po, CS, Uong, S & Koum, K (2005) Antenatal care in the capital city of Cambodia: current situation and impact on obstetric outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 31, 133–139.
32.Misra, DP & Guyer, B (1998) Benefits and limitations of prenatal care: from counting visits to measuring content. JAMA 279, 1661–1662.
33.Carroli, G, Villar, J, Piaggio, G, Khan-Neelofur, D, Gulmezoglu, M, Mugford, M, Lumbiganon, P, Farnot, U & Bersgjø, P; WHO Antenatal Care Trial Research Group (2001) WHO systematic review of randomised controlled trials of routine antenatal care. Lancet 357, 1565–1570.
34.Tasnim, N, Mahmud, G & Arif, MS (2005) Impact of reduced prenatal visit frequency on obstetric outcome in low-risk mothers. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 15, 26–29.
35.Idler, EL & Benyamini, Y (1997) Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav 38, 21–37.
36.Goldstein, MS, Siegel, JM & Boyer, R (1984) Predicting changes in perceived health status. Am J Public Health 74, 611–614.
37.Ahmad, K, Jafar, TH & Chaturvedi, N (2005) Self-rated health in Pakistan: results of a national health survey. BMC Public Health 5, 51.
38.Chandola, T (2001) Ethnic and class differences in health in relation to British South Asians: using the new National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification. Soc Sci Med 52, 1285–1296.
39.Farmer, MM & Ferraro, KF (1997) Distress and perceived health: mechanisms of health decline. J Health Soc Behav 38, 298–311.
40.Dejin-Karlsson, E, Hanson, BS, Ostergren, PO, Lindgren, A, Sjoberg, NO & Marsal, K (2000) Association of a lack of psychosocial resources and the risk of giving birth to small for gestational age infants: a stress hypothesis. BJOG 107, 89–100.
41.Elsenbruch, S, Benson, S, Rucke, M, Rose, M, Dudenhausen, J, Pincus-Knackstedt, MK, Klapp, BF & Arck, PC (2007) Social support during pregnancy: effects on maternal depressive symptoms, smoking and pregnancy outcome. Hum Reprod 22, 869–877.
42.Ernhart, CB, Wolf, AW, Kennard, MJ, Erhard, P, Filipovich, HF & Sokol, RJ (1986) Intrauterine exposure to low levels of lead: the status of the neonate. Arch Environ Health 41, 287–291.
43.Sowers, M, Jannausch, M, Scholl, T, Li, W, Kemp, FW & Bogden, JD (2002) Blood lead concentrations and pregnancy outcomes. Arch Environ Health 57, 489–495.
44.Andrews, KW, Savitz, DA & Hertz-Picciotto, I (1994) Prenatal lead exposure in relation to gestational age and birth weight: a review of epidemiologic studies. Am J Ind Med 26, 13–32.
45.National Institute of Population Studies & Macro International (2007) Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006–07 – Preliminary Report. Islamabad: NIPS.