Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women

  • Alexis Hure (a1) (a2), Anne Young (a3), Roger Smith (a2) and Clare Collins (a1)
Abstract
Objective

To investigate and report the diet quality of young Australian women by pregnancy status.

Design

Pregnancy status was defined as pregnant (n 606), trying to conceive (n 454), had a baby in the last 12 months (n 829) and other (n 5597). The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand.

Setting

A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH).

Subjects

A nationally representative sample of Australian women, aged 25 to 30 years, who completed Survey 3 of the ALSWH. The 7486 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates, defined as >4·5 but <20·0 MJ/d, were included in the analyses.

Results

Pregnancy status was not significantly predictive of diet quality, before or after adjusting for area of residence and socio-economic status. Pregnant women and those who had given birth in the previous 12 months had marginally higher ARFS (mean (se): 30·2 (0·4) and 30·2 (0·3), respectively) than ‘other’ women (29·1 (0·1)). No single food group accounted for this small difference. Across all pregnancy categories there were important nutrients that did not meet the current nationally recommended levels of intake, including dietary folate and fibre.

Conclusion

Women do not appear to consume a wider variety of nutritious foods when planning to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Many young Australian women are failing to meet key nutrient targets as nationally recommended.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Alexis.Hure@newcastle.edu.au
References
Hide All
1.Koblinsky, MA (1995) Beyond maternal mortality – magnitude, interrelationship, and consequences of women’s health, pregnancy-related complications and nutritional status on pregnancy outcomes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 48, Suppl., S21S32.
2.Armitage, JA, Khan, IY, Taylor, PD, Nathanielsz, PW & Poston, L (2004) Developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome by maternal nutritional imbalance: how strong is the evidence from experimental models in mammals? J Physiol 561, 355377.
3.Kind, KL, Moore, VM & Davies, MJ (2006) Diet around conception and during pregnancy – effects on fetal and neonatal outcomes. Reprod Biomed Online 12, 532541.
4.Kuzawa, CW (2005) Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: are fetal cues reliable predictors of future nutritional environments? Am J Hum Biol 17, 521.
5.Rogers, I & Emmett, P (1998) Diet during pregnancy in a population of pregnant women in South West England. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 246250.
6.Mouratidou, T, Ford, F, Prountzou, F & Fraser, R (2006) Dietary assessment of a population of pregnant women in Sheffield, UK. Br J Nutr 96, 929935.
7.Pick, ME, Edwards, M, Moreau, D & Ryan, EA (2005) Assessment of diet quality in pregnant women using the Healthy Eating Index. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 240246.
8.Meltzer, HM, Brantsaeter, AL, Ydersbond, TA, Alexander, J & Haugen, M (2008) Methodological challenges when monitoring the diet of pregnant women in a large study: experiences from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Matern Child Nutr 4, 1427.
9.Moore, VM, Davies, MJ, Willson, KJ, Worsley, A & Robinson, JS (2004) Dietary composition of pregnant women is related to size of the baby at birth. J Nutr 134, 18201826.
10.Zhou, SJ, Schilling, MJ & Makrides, M (2005) Evaluation of an iron specific checklist for the assessment of dietary iron intake in pregnant and postpartum women. Nutrition 21, 908913.
11.Rumbold, AR, Maats, FH & Crowther, CA (2005) Dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E and the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 119, 6771.
12.Department of Health and Family Services (1998) National Nutrition Survey Users’ Guide, 1995. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
13.Australian Bureau of Statistics (2000) Special article: Food and nutrient consumption during pregnancy. In Births, Australia, 1999, pp. 1619. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
14.Nube, M, Kok, FJ, Vandenbroucke, JP, van der Heide-Wessel, C & van der Heide, RM (1987) Scoring of prudent dietary habits and its relation to 25-year survival. J Am Diet Assoc 87, 171175.
15.Farchi, G, Mariotti, S, Menotti, A, Seccareccia, F, Torsello, S & Fidanza, F (1989) Diet and 20-y mortality in two rural population groups of middle-aged men in Italy. Am J Clin Nutr 50, 10951103.
16.Haines, PS, Siega-Riz, AM & Popkin, BM (1999) The Diet Quality Index revised: a measurement instrument for populations. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 697704.
17.Carmichael, SL, Shaw, GM, Selvin, S & Schaffer, DM (2003) Diet quality and risk of neural tube defects. Med Hypotheses 60, 351355.
18.Kant, AK, Schatzkin, A, Graubard, BI & Schairer, C (2000) A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA 283, 21092115.
19.Philipps, C & Johnson, NE (1977) The impact of quality of diet and other factors on birth weight of infants. Am J Clin Nutr 30, 215225.
20.Brown, WJ, Bryson, L, Byles, JE, Dobson, AJ, Manderson, L, Schofield, M & Williams, G (1996) Women’s Health Australia: establishment of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. J Womens Health 5, 467472.
21.Brown, WJ, Bryson, L, Byles, JE, Dobson, AJ, Lee, C, Mishra, G & Schofield, M (1998) Women’s Health Australia: recruitment for a national longitudinal cohort study. Women Health 28, 2340.
22.Lee, C, Dobson, AJ, Brown, WJ, Bryson, L, Byles, J, Warner-Smith, P & Young, AF (2005) Cohort profile: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Int J Epidemiol 34, 987991.
23.Hodge, A, Patterson, AJ, Brown, WJ, Ireland, P & Giles, G (2000) The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ: relative validity of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation. Aust N Z J Public Health 24, 576583.
24. Collins C, Hodge A & Young A (2005) Are you what you eat? Associations between diet quality and health utilisation in mid-aged women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health. Presented at 23rd National DAA Conference, Perth, Australia, 26–28 May 2005.
25.Collins, CE, Young, AF & Hodge, A (2008) Diet quality is associated with higher nutrient intake and self rated health in mid aged women. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 146157.
26.Young, AF, Powers, JR & Bell, SL (2006) Attrition in longitudinal studies: who do you lose? Aust N Z J Public Health 304, 353361.
27.Kant, AK & Thompson, FE (1997) Measures of overall diet quality from a food frequency questionnaire: National Health Interview Survey, 1992. Nutr Res 17, 14431456.
28.National Health and Medical Research Council (2003) Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
29.Smith, A, Kellett, E & Schmerlaib, Y (1998) The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
30.National Health and Medical Research Council (2001) Australian Alcohol Guidelines. Health Risks and Benefits. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
31.National Health and Medical Research Council (2006) Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
32.Black, AE (2000) Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 11191130.
33.Andresen, EM, Malmgren, JA, Carter, WB & Patrick, DL (1994) Screening for depression in well older adults: evaluation of a short form of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Am J Prev Med 10, 7784.
34.Watson, LF, Brown, SJ & Davey, MA (2006) Use of periconceptional folic acid supplements in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health 30, 4249.
35.Laws, P, Grayson, N & Sullivan, E (2006) Australia’s Mothers and Babies 2004. AIHW Catalogue no. PER 34. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
36.Rifas-Shiman, SL, Rich-Edwards, JW, Willett, WC, Kleinman, KP, Oken, E & Gillman, MW (2006) Changes in dietary intake from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 20, 3542.
37.Fowke, JH, Schlundt, D, Gong, Y, Jin, F, Shu, XO, Wen, W, Liu, DK, Gao, YT & Zheng, W (2004) Impact of season of food frequency questionnaire administration on dietary reporting. Ann Epidemiol 14, 778785.
38. Forster DA, Wills G, Denning A & Bolger M (2007) The use of folic acid and other vitamins before and during pregnancy in a group of women in Melbourne, Australia. Midwifery (Epublication ahead of print version).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords