1King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 1414–31.
2Amos AF, McCarty DJ, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabetic Medicine 1997; 14: S7–85.
3Bennett PH. Type 2 diabetes among the Pima Indians of Arizona: an epidemic attributable to environmental change. Nutrition Reviews 1999; 57: S51–4.
4Lako JV, Nguyen VC. Dietary patterns and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among urban indigenous women in Fiji. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 10: 188–93.
5Hetzel B, Michael T. The Lifestyle Factor: Lifestyle and Health. Melbourne: Penguin, 1987.
6WHO Study Group. Diabetes Mellitus—Technical Report Series 727. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1985.
7Gavin JR 3rd, Alberti KGMM, Davidson MB, et al. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 1183–97.
8WHO Consultation Group. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1999.
9Harris MI, Eastman RC, Cowie CC, Flegal KM, Eberhardt MS. Comparison of diabetes diagnostic categories in the US population according to the 1997 American Diabetes Association and 1980–1985 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 1859–62.
10Bennett PH. Impact of the new WHO classification and diagnostic criteria. Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism 1999; 1(Suppl. 2): S1–6.
11King H, Rewers M. Global estimates for prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in adults. WHO Ad Hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 157–77.
12Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Goldstein DE, Little RR, Wiedmeyer HM, Byrd-Holt DD. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in US adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 518–24.
13Harris MI, Hadden WC, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance and plasma glucose levels in US population aged 20–74 yr. Diabetes 1987; 36: 523–34.
14Harris MI. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in black and white Americans. Diabetes-Metabolism Reviews 1990; 6: 71–90.
15Flegal KM, Ezzati TM, Harris MI, Haynes SG, Juarez RZ, Knowler WC, Perez-Stable EJ, Stern MP. Prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982–1984. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 628–38.
16Gohdes D. Diabetes in North American Indians and Alaska natives. In: Harris MI, Cowie CC, Stern MP, eds. Diabetes in America. Washington, USA. National Institutes of Health, 1995.
17Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Saad MF, Bennett PH. Diabetes Mellitus in the Pima Indians: incidence, risk factors and pathogenesis. Diabetes-Metabolism Reviews 1990; 6: 1–27.
18Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Engelgau MM, Vinicor F. Diabetes trends among American Indians and Alaska natives: 1990–1998. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 1508–9.
19Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 286: 1195–200.
20Teuscher T, Baillod P, Rosman JB, Teuscher A. Absence of diabetes in a rural West African population with a high carbohydrate/cassava diet. Lancet 1987; i: 765–8.
21Walker ARP. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1966; i: 1163.
22Cosnett JE. Illness among Natal Indians: a survey of hospital admissions. South African Medical Journal 1957; 31: 1109–15.
23Omar MAK, Seedat MA, Motala AA, Dyer RB, Becker P. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a group of urban South African blacks. South African Medical Journal 1993; 83: 641–3.
24Knowler WC, Bennett PH, Hamman RF, Miller M. Diabetes incidence and prevalence in Pima Indians: a 19-fold greater incidence than in Rochester, Minnesota. American Journal of Epidemiology 1978; 108: 497–505.
25Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Savage PJ, Bennett PH. Diabetes incidence in Pima Indians: contributions of obesity and parental diabetes. American Journal of Epidemiology 1981; 113: 144–56.
26Dowse GK, Zimmet PZ, Finch CF, Collins VR. Decline in incidence of epidemic glucose intolerance in Nauruans: implications for the “thrifty genotype”. American Journal of Epidemiology 1991; 133: 1093–104.
27Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Pima (American) Indians over a ten-year period. In: Waldhausl WK, ed. Diabetes 1979. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1979.
28Kleinman JC, Donahue RP, Harris MI, Finucane FF, Madans JH, Brock DB. Mortality among diabetics in a national sample. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988; 128: 389–401.
29Gu K, Cowie CC, Harris MI. Mortality in adults with and without diabetes in a national cohort of the US population, 1971–1993. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 1138–45.
30Roper NA, Bilous RW, Kelly WF, Unwin NC, Connolly VM. Excess mortality in a population with diabetes and the impact of material deprivation: longitudinal, population based study. British Medical Journal 2001; 322: 1389–93.
31Morrish NJ, Wang SL, Stevens LK, Fuller JH, Keen H. Mortality and causes of death in the WHO multinational study of vascular disease in diabetes. Diabetologia 2001; 44: S14–21.
32Sievers ML, Nelson RG, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Impact of NIDDM on mortality and causes of death in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 1992; 15: 1541–9.
33McLarty DG, Kinabo L, Swai AB. Diabetes in tropical Africa: a prospective study, 1981–7. II. Course and prognosis. British Medical Journal 1990; 300: 1107–10.
34Bale GS, Entmacher PS. Estimated life expectancy of diabetics. Diabetes 1977; 26: 434–8.
35Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL. Sex differential in ischemic heart disease mortality in diabetics: a prospective population-based study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1983; 118: 489–96.
36Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Solomon CG, Liu S, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Nathan DM, Manson JE. The impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality from all causes and coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001; 161: 1717–23.
37Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, Wentworth D. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 434–44.
38Saad MF, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Nelson RG, Charles MA, Bennett PH. A two-step model for development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. American Journal of Medicine 1991; 90: 229–35.
39Saad MF, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Nelson RG, Mott DM, Bennett PH. Sequential changes in serum insulin concentration during development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet 1989; i: 1356–9.
40Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, de Courten M, Dowse GK, Chitson P, Gareeboo H, Hemraj F, Fareed D, Tuomilehto J, Alberti KG. Impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. What best predicts future diabetes in Mauritius? Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 399–402.
41Gabir MM, Hanson RL, Dabelea D, Imperatore G, Roumain J, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. The 1997 American Diabetes Association and 1999 World Health Organization criteria for hyperglycemia in the diagnosis and prediction of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 1108–12.
42De Vegt F, Dekker JM, Jager A, Hienkens E, Kostense PJ, Stehouwer CD, Nijpels G, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Relation of impaired fasting and postload glucose with incident type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population: the Hoorn Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285: 2109–13.
43Saad MF, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Nelson RG, Mott DM, Bennett PH. The natural history of impaired glucose tolerance in the Pima Indians. New England Journal of Medicine 1988; 319: 1500–6.
44Edelstein SL, Knowler WC, Bain RP, Andres R, Barrett-Connor EL, Dowse GK, Haffner SM, Pettitt DJ, Sorkin JD, Muller DC, Collins VR, Hamman RF. Predictors of progression from impaired glucose tolerance to NIDDM: an analysis of six prospective studies. Diabetes 1997; 46: 701–10.
45Weyer C, Bogardus C, Mott DM, Pratley RE. The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1999; 104: 787–94.
46Eschwege E, Charles MA, Simon D, Thibult N, Balkau B. From policemen to policies: what is the future for 2-h glucose?: The Kelly West Lecture, 2000. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 1945–50.
47Balkau B. The DECODE study. Diabetes epidemiology: collaborative analysis of diagnostic criteria in Europe. Diabetes & Metabolism 2000; 26: 282–6.
48Gabir MM, Hanson RL, Dabelea D, Imperatore G, Roumain J, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Plasma glucose and prediction of microvascular disease and mortality: evaluation of 1997 American Diabetes Association and 1999 World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 1113–8.
49Shaw JE, Hodge AM, de Courten M, Chitson P, Zimmet PZ. Isolated post-challenge hyperglycaemia confirmed as a risk factor for mortality. Diabetologia 1999; 42: 1050–4.
50Davies MJ, Raymond NT, Day JL, Hales CN, Burden AC. Impaired glucose tolerance and fasting hyperglycaemia have different characteristics. Diabetic Medicine 2000; 17: 433–40.
51Tan CE, Emmanuel SC, Tan BY, Jacob E. Prevalence of diabetes and ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors. The 1992 Singapore National Health Survey. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 241–7.
52Mather HM, Chaturvedi N, Fuller JH. Mortality and morbidity from diabetes in South Asians and Europeans: 11-year follow-up of the Southall Diabetes Survey, London, UK. Diabetic Medicine 1998; 15: 53–9.
53Zimmet P, Taylor R, Ram P, King H, Sloman G, Raper LR, Hunt D. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in the biracial (Melanesian and Indian) population of Fiji: a rural-urban comparison. American Journal of Epidemiology 1983; 118: 673–88.
54Omar MA, Seedat MA, Dyer RB, Motala AA, Knight LT, Becker PJ. South African Indians show a high prevalence of NIDDM and bimodality in plasma glucose distribution patterns. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 70–3.
55Prior IA, Davidson F. The epidemiology of diabetes in Polynesians and Europeans in New Zealand and the Pacific. New Zealand Medical Journal 1966; 65: 375–83.
56Simmons D. The epidemiology of diabetes and its complications in New Zealand. Diabetic Medicine 1996; 13: 371–5.
57Everhart JE, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Incidence and risk factors for noninsulin-dependent diabetes. In: Harris MI, Hamman RF, eds. Diabetes in America, Diabetes Data Compiled 1984. 1985 NIH Publication No. 85–1468.
58Barnett AH, Eff C, Leslie RD, Pyke DA. Diabetes in identical twins. A study of 200 pairs. Diabetologia 1981; 20: 87–93.
59Newman B, Selby JV, King MC, Slemenda C, Fabsitz R, Friedman GD. Concordance for type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in male twins. Diabetologia 1987; 30: 763–8.
60Serjeantson SW, Owerbach D, Zimmet P, Nerup J, Thoma K. Genetics of diabetes in Nauru: effects of foreign admixture, HLA antigens and the insulin-gene-linked polymorphism. Diabetologia 1983; 25: 13–7.
61Knowler WC, Williams RC, Pettitt DJ, Steinberg AG. Gm3;5,13,14 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an association in American Indians with genetic admixture. American Journal of Human Genetics 1988; 43: 520–6.
62Gardner LI Jr, Stern MP, Haffner SM, Gaskill SP, Hazuda HP, Relethford JH, Eifler CW. Prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Americans. Relationship to percent of gene pool derived from native American sources. Diabetes 1984; 33: 86–92.
63Kenny SJ, Aubert RE, Geiss LS. Prevalence and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In: Harris MI, Cowie CC, Stern MP, eds. Diabetes in America. Washington, USA. National Institutes of Health, 1995.
64Dabelea D, Hanson RL, Bennett PH, Roumain J, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ. Increasing prevalence of Type II diabetes in American Indian children. Diabetologia 1998; 41: 904–10.
65Fagot-Campagna A, Pettitt DJ, Engelgau MM, Burrows NR, Geiss LS, Valdez R, Beckles GL, Saaddine J, Gregg EW, Williamson DF, Narayan KM. Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review and a public health perspective. Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 136: 664–72.
66Dean HJ, Mundy RL, Moffatt M. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Indian children in Manitoba. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1992; 147: 52–7.
67Kitagawa T, Owada M, Urakami T, Yamauchi K. Increased incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among Japanese schoolchildren correlates with an increased intake of animal protein and fat. Clinical Pediatrics (Philadelphia) 1998; 37: 111–5.
68Savage PJ, Bennett PH, Senter RG, Miller M. High prevalence of diabetes in young Pima Indians: evidence of phenotypic variation in a genetically isolated population. Diabetes 1979; 28: 937–42.
69Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Arky RA, Speizer FE. Weight as a risk factor for clinical diabetes in women. American Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 132: 501–13.
70Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Campbell SM, Johnson CL. Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 273: 205–11.
71Shah M, Hannan PJ, Jeffery RW. Secular trend in body mass index in the adult population of three communities from the upper mid-western part of the USA: the Minnesota Heart Health Program. International Journal of Obesity 1991; 15: 499–503.
72Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Life Sciences Research Office. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995.
73Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres JP, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Theriault G, Dussault J, Moorjani S, Pinault S, Fournier G. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. New England Journal of Medicine 1990; 322: 1477–82.
74Preparation and Use of Food-based Dietary Guidelines. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 880. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998.
75Schoeller DA. The importance of clinical research: the role of thermogenesis in human obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 73: 511–6.
76Grundy SM. Multifactorial causation of obesity: implications for prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 67(Suppl.): 563S–72S.
77Ravussin E, Swinburn BA. Pathophysiology of obesity. Lancet 1992; 340: 404–8.
78National Institutes of Health. The Lipid Research Clinics Population Studies Data Book: The Prevalence Study. (Publication no. 79–1527) Bethesda, MD: NIH, 1979.
79Flatt JP. Importance of nutrient balance in body weight regulation. Diabetes-Metabolism Reviews 1988; 4: 571–81.
80Shah M, Garg A. High-fat and high-carbohydrate diets and energy balance. Diabetes Care 1996; 19: 1142–52.
81Sclafani A. Dietary obesity models. In: Bjorntorp P, Brodoff BN. eds. Obesity. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott, 1992, 241–8.
82 Anonymous. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: daily dietary fat and total food energy intakes: NHANES III, Phase 1, 1988–91. Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 271: 1309.
83Swinburn B, Metcalf P, Lezotte DC. Long-term (5-year) effects of a reduced fat diet in individuals with glucose intolerance. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 619–24.
84Astrup A, Greenwald G, Melanson E, Saris WH, Hill J. The role of low-fat diets in body weight control:a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. International Journal of Obesity 2000; 24: 1545–52.
85Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 961–9.
86Boyko EJ, Fujimoto WY, Leonetti DL, Newell-Morris L. Visceral adiposity and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study among Japanese Americans. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 465–71.
87Despres JP. Health consequences of visceral obesity. Annals of Medicine 2001; 33: 534–41.
88James WPT, Leach R, Kalamara E, Shayeghi M. The worldwide obesity epidemic. Obesity Research 2001; 9: 228S–33S.
89Manson JE, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Krolewski AS, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Physical activity and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Lancet 1991; 338: 774–8.
90Manson JE, Nathan DM, Krolewski AS, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association 1992; 268: 63–7.
91Kriska AM, LaPorte RE, Pettitt DJ, Charles MA, Nelson RG, Kuller LH, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. The association of physical activity with obesity, fat distribution and glucose intolerance in Pima Indians. Diabetologia 1993; 36: 863–9.
92Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325: 147–52.
93McAuley KA, Williams SM, Mann JI, Goulding A, Chisholm A, Wilson N, Story G, McLay RT, Harper MJ, Jones IE. Intensive lifestyle changes are necessary to improve insulin sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 445–52.
94Storlien LH, Baur LA, Kriketos AD, Pan DA, Cooney GJ, Jenkins AB, Calvert GD, Campbell LV. Dietary fats and insulin action. Diabetologia 1996; 39: 621–31.
95Lichtenstein AH, Schwab US. Relationship of dietary fat to glucose metabolism. Atherosclerosis 2000; 150: 227–43.
96Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S. Diet and risk of type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia 2001; 44: 805–17.
97Nagy K, Levy J, Grunberger G. High-fat feeding induces tissue-specific alteration in proportion of activated insulin receptors in rats. Acta Endocrinologica Copenhagen 1990; 122: 361–8.
98Grundleger ML, Thenen SW. Decreased insulin binding, glucose transport, and glucose metabolism in soleus muscle of rats fed a high fat diet. Diabetes 1982; 31: 232–7.
99Hedeskov CJ, Capito K, Islin H, Hansen SE, Thams P. Long-term fat-feeding-induced insulin resistance in normal NMRI mice: postreceptor changes of liver, muscle and adipose tissue metabolism resembling those of type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetologica 1992; 29: 14–9.
100Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Chisholm DJ, Pascoe WS, Khouri S, Kraegen EW. Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats. Relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3: fatty acids in muscle phospholipid. Diabetes 1991; 40: 280–9.
101Pan DA, Lillioja S, Kriketos AD, Milner MR, Baur LA, Bogardus C, Jenkins AB, Storlien LH. Skeletal muscle triglyceride levels are inversely related to insulin action. Diabetes 1997; 46: 983–8.
102Storlien LH, James DE, Burleigh KM, Chisholm DJ, Kraegen EW. Fat feeding causes widespread in vivo insulin resistance, decreased energy expenditure, and obesity in rats. American Journal of Physiolgy 1986; 251: E576–83.
103Storlien LH, Kraegen EW, Chisholm DJ, Ford GL, Bruce DG, Pascoe WS. Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding in rats. Science 1987; 237: 885–8.
104Marshall JA, Hamman RF, Baxter J. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet and the aetiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1991; 134: 590–603.
105Moses RG, Shand JL, Tapsell LC. The recurrence of gestational diabetes: could dietary differences in fat intake be an explanation? Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 1647–50.
106Feskens EJM, Virtanen SM, Räsänen L, Tuomilehto J, Stengård J, Pekkanen J, Nissinen A, Kromhout D. Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. A 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Diabetes Care 1995; 18: 1104–12.
107Marshall JA, Hoag S, Shetterly S, Hamman RF. Dietary fat predicts conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to NIDDM. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 50–6.
108Marshall JA, Bessesen DH, Hamman RF. High saturated fat and low starch and fibre are associated with hyperinsuli-nemia in a non-diabetic population: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 1997; 40: 430–8.
109Mayer EJ, Newman B, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV. Usual dietary fat intake and insulin concentrations in healthy women twins. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 1459–69.
110Lovejoy J, DiGirolamo M. Habitual dietary intake and insulin sensitivity in lean and obese adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 55: 1174–9.
111Bennett P, Knowler W, Baird H, Butler W, Pettitt D, Reid J. Diet and development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: an epidemiological perspective. In: Pozza B, ed. Diet, Diabetes and Atherosclerosis. New York: Raven Press, 1984, 109–19.
112Lundgren H, Bengtsson C, Blohme G, Isaksson B, Lapidus L, Lenner RA, Saaek A, Winther E. Dietary habits and incidence on noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989; 49: 708–12.
113Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Cardiovascular risk factors and the 25-year incidence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989; 130: 1101–8.
114Feskens EJ, Bowles CH, Kromhout D. Inverse association between fish intake and risk of glucose intolerance in normoglycemic elderly men and women. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 935–41.
115Colditz GA, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Willett WC, Speizer FE. Diet and risk of clinical diabetes in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 55: 1018–23.
116Salmeron J, Manson JE. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 277: 472–7.
117Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 545–50.
118Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 73: 1019–26.
119Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Folsom AR. Dietary fat and incidence of type 2 diabetes in older Iowa women. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 1528–35.
120Kolterman OG, Greenfield M, Reaven GM, Saekow M, Olefsky JM. Effect of a high carbohydrate diet on insulin binding to adipocytes and on insulin action in vivo in man. Diabetes 1979; 28: 731–6.
121Beck-Nielsen H, Pedersen O, Sorensen N. Effects of diet on the cellular insulin binding and the insulin sensitivity in young healthy subjects. Diabetologia 1978; 15: 289–96.
122Borkman M, Campbell LV, Chisholm DJ, Storlien LH. Comparison of the effects on insulin sensitivity of high carbohydrate and high fat diets in normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1991; 72: 432–7.
123Hjollund E, Pedersen O, Richelsen B, Beck-Nielsen H, Sorensen NS. Increased insulin binding to adipocytes and monocytes and increased insulin sensitivity of glucose transport and metabolism in adipocytes from non-insulin-dependent diabetics after a low-fat/high-starch/high-fiber diet. Metabolism 1983; 32: 1067–75.
124Chen M, Bergman RN, Porte D. Insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in aging: the importance of dietary carbohydrate. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1988; 67: 951–7.
125Swinburn BA, Boyce VL, Bergman RN, Howard BV, Bogardus C. Deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism and lipoprotein changes induced by modern, high fat diet in Pima Indians and Caucasians. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1991; 73: 156–65.
126Lovejoy JC, Windhauser MM, Rood JC, de la Bretonne JA. Effect of a controlled high-fat versus low-fat diet on insulin sensitivity and leptin levels in African-American and Caucasian women. Metabolism 1998; 47: 1520–4.
127Bisschop PH, de Metz J, Ackermans MT, Endert E, Pijl H, Kuipers F, Meijer AJ, Sauerwein HP, Romijn JA. Dietary fat content alters insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in healthy men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 73: 554–9.
128Bo S, Menato G, Lezo A, Signorile A, Bardelli C, De Michieli F, Massobrio M, Pagano G. Dietary fat and gestational hyperglycemia. Diabetologia 2001; 44: 972–8.
129Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Habitual dietary intake and glucose tolerance in euglycaemic men: the Zutphen study. International Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 19: 953–9.
130Trevisan M, Krogh V, Freudenheim J, Blake A, Muti P, Panico S, Farinaro E, Mancini M, Menotti A, Ricci G. Consumption of olive oil, butter and vegetable oils and coronary heart disease risk factors. The Research Group ATS-RF2 of the Italian National Research Council. Journal of the American Medical Association 1990; 263: 688–92.
131Parker DR, Weiss ST, Troisi R, Cassano PA, Vokonas PS, Landsberg L. Relationship of dietary saturated fatty acids and body habitus to serum insulin concentrations: the Normative Aging study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993; 58: 129–36.
132Folsom AR, Ma J, McGovern PG, Eckfeldt H. Relation between plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and hyperinsulinemia. Metabolism 1996; 45: 223–8.
133Vessby B, Tengblad S, Lithell H. Insulin sensitivity is related to the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and skeletal muscle phospholipids in 70-year-old men. Diabetologia 1994; 37: 1044–50.
134Vessby B, Aro A, Skarfors E, Berglund L, Salminen I, Lithell H. The risk to develop NIDDM is related to the fatty acid composition of the serum cholesterol esters. Diabetes 1994; 43: 1353–7.
135Mooy JM, Grootenhuis PA, de Vries H, Valkenburg HA, Bouter LM, Kostense PJ, Heine RJ. Prevalence and determinants of glucose intolerance in a Dutch caucasian population. The Hoorn study. Diabetes Care 1995; 18: 1270–3.
136Borkman M, Storlien LH, Pan DA, Jenkins AB, Chisholm DJ, Campbell LV. The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty-acid composition of skeletal-muscle phospholipids. New England Journal of Medicine 1993; 328: 238–44.
137Pan DA, Lillioja S, Milner MR, Kriketos AD, Baur LA, Bogardus C, Storlien LH. Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1995; 96: 2802–8.
138Maron DJ, Fair JM, Haskell WL. Saturated fat intake and insulin resistance in men with coronary artery disease. The stanford coronary risk intervention project investigators and staff. Circulation 1991; 84: 2020–7.
139Uusitupa M, Schwab U, Mäkimattila S, Karhapää P, Sarkkinen E, Maliranta H, Ågren J, Penttilä I. Effects of two high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy young women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; 59: 1310–6.
140Vessby B, Gustafsson I-B, Boberg J, Karlström B, Lithell H, Werner I. Substituting polyunsaturated for saturated fat as a single change in a Swedish diet: effects on serum lipoprotein metabolism and glucose tolerance in patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 1980; 10: 193–202.
141Vessby B, Uusitupa M, Hermansen K, Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Tapsell LC, Nälsen C, Berglund L, Louheranta A, Rasmussen BM, Calvert GD, Maffettone A, Pedersen E, Gustafsson I-B, Storlien LH. Substituting dietary saturated for monounsaturated fat impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy men and women: the KANWU study. Diabetologia 2001; 44: 312–9.
142Schwab US, Niskanen LK, Maliranta HM, Savolainen MJ, Kesäniemi YA, Uusitupa MIJ. Lauric and palmitic acid-enriched diets have minimal impact on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and glucose metabolism in healthy young women. Journal of Nutrition 1995; 125: 466–73.
143Louheranta AM, Turpeinen AK, Schwab US, Vidgren HM, Parviainen MT, Uusitupa MIJ. A high-stearic acid diet does not impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy women. Metabolism 1998; 47: 529–34.
144Alstrup KK, Gregersen S, Jensen HM, Thomsen JL, Hermansen K. Differential effects of cis and trans fatty acids on insulin release from isolated mouse islets. Metabolism 1999; 48: 22–9.
145Christiansen E, Schnider S, Palmvig B, Tauber-Lassen E, Pedersen O. Intake of a diet high in trans monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids. Effects of postprandial insulinemia and glycemia in obese patients with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 881–7.
146Louheranta AM, Turpeinen AK, Vidgren HM, Schwab US, Uusitupa MIJ. A high- trans fatty acid diet and insulin sensitivity in young healthy women. Metabolism 1999; 48: 870–5.
147Borkman M, Chisholm DJ, Furler SM, Storlien LH, Kraegen EW, Simons LA, Chesterman CN. Effects of fish-oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Diabetes 1989; 38: 1314–9.
148Annuzzi G, Rivellese A, Capaldo B, Di Marino L, Iovine C, Marotta G, Riccardi G. A controlled study on the effects of n -3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis 1991; 87: 65–73.
149Boberg M, Pollare T, Siegbahn A, Vessby B. Supplementation with n -3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 1992; 22: 645–50.
150McManus RM, Jumpson J, Finegood DT, Clandinin MT, Ryan EA. A comparison of the effects of n -3 fatty acids from linseed oil and fish oil in well controlled type II diabetes. Diabetes Care 1996; 19: 463–7.
151Rivellese AA, Maffettone A, Iovine C, Di Marino L, Annuzzi G, Mancini M, Riccardi G. Long-term effects of fish oil on insulin resistance and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Diabetes Care 1996; 19: 1207–13.
152Grundy SM. The optimal ratio of fat-to-carbohydrate in the diet. Annual Review of Nutrition 1999; 19: 325–41.
153Bray GA, Popkin BM. Dietary fat intake does affect obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 68: 1157–73.
154Richards MK, Paeratakul S, Bray GA, Popkin BM. Current theories regarding the influence of diet and the control of obesity. In: Wilson T, Temple NJ, eds. Nutritional Health: Strategies for Disease Prevention. Totowa, NJ: Human Press Inc., 2001; 135–50.
155Tsunehara CH, Leonetti DL, Fujimoto WY. Diet of second-generation Japanese-American men with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; 52: 731–8.
156Grundy SM, Denke M. Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Journal of Lipid Research 1990; 31: 1149–72.
157Nestle PJ, Carroll KF, Havenstein N. Plasma triglyceride response to carbohydrates, fats and caloric intake. Metabolism 1970; 19: 1–18.
158Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 1992; 12: 911–9.
159Jeppesen J, Schaaf P, Jones C, Zhou MY, Chen YD, Reaven GM. Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997; 65: 1027–33.
160Parks EJ, Hellerstein MK. Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms. American Journal of Nutrition 2000; 71: 412–33.
161Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 71: 921–30.
162Bessesen DH. The role of carbohydrates in insulin resistance. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131: 2782S–6S.
163Reaven GM. Do high carbohydrate diets prevent the development or attentuate the manifestations (or both) of syndrome X? A viewpoint strong against. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1997; 8: 23–7.
164Rassmussen OW, Thomsen C, Hansen KW, Vesterlund M, Winther E, Hermansen K. Effects on blood pressure, glucose, and lipid levels of a high-monounsaturated fat diet compared with a high-carbohydrate diet in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 1565–71.
165Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, et al. AHA dietary guidelines revision 2000: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2000 2000; 102: 2284–99.
166Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 66. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1998.
167Granfeldt Y, Hagander B, Björck I. Metabolic responses to starch in oat and wheat products. On the importance of food structure, incomplete gelatinization or presence of viscous fibre. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; 49: 189–99.
168Granfeldt Y, Björck I, Hagander B. On the importance of processing conditions, products thickness and eggs addition, for the glycemic and hormonal responses to pasta—a comparison with white bread made from pasta ingredients. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991; 45: 489.
169Englyst H, Kingman S, Cummings J. Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 46: 33S–50S.
170Holm J, Koellreutter B, Wursch P. Influence of sterilization, drying and oat bran enrichment of pasta on glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and on the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 46: 629.
171Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, Goff DV. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981; 34: 362–6.
172Trowell HC. Dietary fibre, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Proceeding of the Nutrition Society 1973; 32: 151–7.
173Trowell HC. Dietary fibre hypothesis of the aetiology of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1975; 24: 762–5.
174Feskens EJ, Loeber JG, Kromhout D. Diet and physical activity as determinants of hyperinsulinaemia: the Zutphen Elderly Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 140: 350–60.
175Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, Salminen V, Uusitupa M. and for the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344: 1343–50.
177McIntosch M, Miller C. A diet containing food rich in soluble and insoluble fibre improves glycemic control and reduces hyperlipidemia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59: 52–5.
178Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL. Dietary fiber and the glycemic response. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1985; 180: 422–31.
179Anderson JW. Fiber and health: an overview. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1986; 81: 892–7.
180Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. Dietary advice based on the glycemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine 1994; 11: 340–67.
181Brand JC, Colagiuri S, Crossman S, Allen A, Roberts DC, Truswell AS. Low-glycemic index foods improve long-term glycemic control in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 95–101.
182Fontvieille AM, Rizkalla SW, Penfornis A, Acosta M, Bornet FR, Slama G. The use of low glycaemic index foods improves metabolic control of diabetic patients over five weeks. Diabetic Medicine 1992; 9: 444–50.
183Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Buckley GC, Wong GS, Josse RG. Beneficial effect of a low glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 1992; 9: 451–8.
184Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Kalmusky J, et al. Low-glycemic index diet in hyperlipidemia: use of traditional starchy foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1987; 45: 66–71.
185Brand-Miller JC. The importance of glycemic index in diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; 59(Suppl.): 747S–52S.
186Kushi LH, Meyer KA, Jacobs DR. Cereals, legumes, and chronic disease risk reduction: evidence from epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70(Suppl): 451S–8S.
187Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Rimm E, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses' Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70: 412–9.
188Jacobs DR, Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Folsom AR. Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 68: 248–57.
189Department of Health. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. London: HMSO, 1991.
190Sullivan A. Healthy eating: something to chew over? Nursing Standards 2000; 14: 43–6.
191Hannon-Fletcher M, Hughes C, O'Kane MJ, Moles KW, Barnett CR, Barnett YA, In: Basu TK, Temple NJ and Garg ML eds. Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 1999; 259–69.
192Jain SK. Oxidative stress, vitamin E and diabetes. In: Basu TK, Temple NJ, Garg ML, eds. Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 1999; 249–57.
193Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Tuomainen TP, Maenpaa PH, Korpela H, Kaplan GA, Lynch J, Helmrich SP, Salonen R. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. British Medical Journal 1995; 311: 1124–7.
194Reunanen A, Knekt P, Aaran RK, Aromaa A. Serum antioxidants and risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 52: 89–93.
195Kao WH, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, Mo JP, Watson RL, Brancati FL. Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999; 159: 2151–9.
196Schwarz K, Mertz W. Chromium (III) and the glucose tolerance factor. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 1959; 85: 292–5.
197Lukaski HC. Chromium as a supplement. Annual Review of Nutrition 1999; 19: 279–302.
198Vincent JB. Quest for the molecular mechanism of chromium action and its relationship to diabetes. Nutrition Reviews 2000; 58(3): 67–72.
199Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Canary JJ. Supplemental-chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991; 54: 909–16.
200Striffler JS, Polansky MM, Anderson RA. Dietary chromium decreases insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-imbalanced diet. Metabolism 1998; 47: 396–400.
201Striffler JS, Law JS, Polansky MM, Bhathena SJ, Anderson RA. Chromium improves insulin response to glucose in rats. Metabolism 1995; 44: 1314–20.
202Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Gautschi K. Dietary chromium effects on tissue chromium concentrations and chromium absorption in rats. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 1996; 9: 11–25.
203Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J, Feng J. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997; 46: 1786–91.
204Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE, Arky RA, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. A prospective study of moderate alcohol drinking and risk of diabetes in women. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988; 128: 549–58.
205Rimm EB, Chan J, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men. British Medical Journal 1995; 310: 555–9.
206Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Spelsberg A, Manson JE. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000; 160: 1025–30.
207Kao WH, Puddey IB, Boland LL, Watson RL, Brancati FL. Alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 154: 748–57.
208O'Sullivan JB. Diabetes mellitus after GDM. Diabetes 1991; 40(Suppl. 2): 131–5.
209Pettitt DJ, Knowler WC, Baird HR, Bennett PH. Gestational diabetes: infant and maternal complications of pregnancy in relation to third-trimester glucose tolerance in the Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 1980; 3: 458–64.
210Pettitt DJ, Aleck KA, Baird HR, Carraher MJ, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Congenital susceptibility to NIDDM. Role of intrauterine environment. Diabetes 1988; 37: 622–8.
211Gautier JF, Wilson C, Weyer C, Mott D, Knowler WC, Cavaghan M, Polonsky KS, Bogardus C, Pratley RE. Low acute insulin secretory responses in adult offspring of people with early onset type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2001; 50: 1828–33.
212Dabelea D, Hanson RL, Lindsay RS, Pettitt DJ, Imperatore G, Gabir MM, Roumain J, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Intrauterine exposure to diabetes conveys risks for type 2 diabetes and obesity: a study of discordant sibships. Diabetes 2000; 49: 2208–11.
213Hales CN, Barker DJ, Clark PM, Cox LJ, Fall C, Osmond C, Winter PD. Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. British Medical Journal 1991; 303: 1019–22.
214Barker DJP, Hales CN, Fall CHD, Osmond C, Phipps K, Clark PMS. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 1993; 36: 62–7.
215Valdez R, Athens MA, Thompson GH, Bradshaw BS, Stern MP. Birthweight and adult health outcomes in a biethnic population in the USA. Diabetologia 1994; 37: 624–31.
216McCance DR, Pettit DJ, Hanson RL, Jacobsson LTH, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Birthweight and non-insulin dependent diabetes: ‘thrifty genotype’, ‘thrifty phenotype’, or ‘surviving small baby genotype’? British Medical Journal 1994; 308: 942–5.
217Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. Birthweight and adult hypertension and diabetes in US men. Abstract. American Journal of Hypertension 1996; 9: 11A.
218Lithell HO, McKeigue PM, Berglund L, Mohsen R, Lithell UB, Leon DA. Relation of size at birth to non-insulin dependent diabetes and insulin concentrations in men aged 50–60 years. British Medical Journal 1996; 312: 406–10.
219Phillips DIW. Insulin resistance as a programmed response to fetal undernutrition. Diabetologia 1996; 39: 1119–22.
220Barker DJP. Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life. Edinburgh: Harcourt Brace & Co. Ltd., 1998.
221McCance RA, Widdowson EM. The determinants of growth and form. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B Biological Sciences 1974; 185: 1–17.
222Stern MP, Bartley M, Duggirala R, Bradshaw B. Birth weight and the metabolic syndrome: thrifty phenotype or thrifty genotype? Diabetes-Metabolism Research and Reviews 2000; 16: 88–93.
223McCance DR, Pettitt DJ, Hanson RL, Jacobsson LT, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes: thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or surviving small baby genotype? British Medical Journal 1994; 308: 942–5.
224Dabelea D, Pettitt DJ, Hanson RL, Imperatore G, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Birth weight, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance in Pima Indian children and young adults. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 944–50.
225Hales CN, Desai M, Ozanne SE. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis: how does it look after 5 years? Diabetic Medicine 1997; 14: 189–95.
226Lithell HO, McKeigue PM, Berglund L, Mohsen R, Lithell UB, Leon DA. Relation of size at birth to non-insulin dependent diabetes and insulin concentrations in men aged 50–60 years. British Medical Journal 1996; 312: 406–10.
227Hales CN, Barker DJ. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 1992; 35: 595–601.
228Ravelli ACJ, van der Meulen JHP, Michels RP, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Hales CN, Bleker OP. Glucose tolerance in adults after prenatal exposure to famine. Lancet 1998; 351: 173–7.
229Barker DJP, Godfrey KM. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. In: Wilson T, Temple N, eds. Nutritional Health: Strategies for Prevention. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2001.
230Fall CHD, Stein CE, Kumaran K, Cox V, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Hales CN. Size at birth, maternal weight, and type 2 diabetes in South India. Diabetic Medicine 1998; 15: 220–7.
231Mathews F, Yudkin P, Neil A. Influence of maternal nutrition on outcome of pregnancy: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 1999; 319: 339–43.
232Campbell DM, Hall MH, Barker DJP, Cross J, Shiell AW, Godfrey KM. Diet in pregnancy and the offspring's blood pressure 40 years later. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1996; 103: 273–80.
233Godfrey K, Robinson S, Barker DJP, Osmond C, Cox V. Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. British Medical Journal 1996; 312: 410–4.
234Bennett PH. Type 2 diabetes among the Pima Indians of Arizona: an epidemic attributable to environmental change. Nutrition Reviews 1999; 57: S51–4.
235Pettitt DJ, Forman MR, Hanson RL, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Breastfeeding and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Lancet 1997; 350: 166–8.
236Young TK, Martens PJ, Taback SP, Sellers EA, Dean HJ, Cheang M, Flett B. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: prenatal and early infancy risk factors among native Canadians. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2002; 156: 651–5.
237Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 286: 327–34.
238Festa A, D'Agostino R Jr, Mykkanen L, Tracy RP, Zaccaro DJ, Hales CN, Haffner SM. Relative contribution of insulin and its precursors to fibrinogen and PAI-1 in a large population with different states of glucose tolerance. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 1999; 19: 562–8.
239Pickup JC, Crook MA. Is type II diabetes mellitus a disease of the innate immune system? Diabetologia 1998; 41: 1241–8.
240Lindsay RS, Krakoff J, Hanson RL, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Gamma globulin levels predict type 2 diabetes in the Pima Indian population. Diabetes 2001; 50: 1598–603.
241Lindstedt G, Lundberg PA, Lapidus L, Lundgren H, Bengtsson C, Bjorntorp P. Low sex hormone-binding globulin concentration as independent risk factor for development of NIDDM: 12-year follow-up of population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Diabetes 1991; 40: 123–8.
242Haffner SM, Valdez RA, Morales PA, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Decreased sex hormone-binding globulin predicts non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women but not in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1993; 77: 56–60.
243Haffner SM, Karhapää P, Mykkänen L, Laakso M. Insulin resistance, body fat distribution and sex hormones in men. Diabetes 1994; 43: 212–9.
244Charles MA, Pettitt DJ, McCance DR, Hanson RL, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Gravidity, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes among Pima Indian women. American Journal of Medicine 1994; 97: 250–5.
245Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 537–44.
246Eriksson K-F, Lindgarde F. Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by diabetes mellitus by diet and physical exercise: the 6-Year Malmo Feasibility Study. Diabetologia 1991; 34: 891–8.
247Uusitupa M, Louheranta A, Lindstrom J, Valle T, Sundvall J, Eriksson J, Tuomilehto J. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. British Journal of Nutrition 2000; 83:(Suppl. 1): S137–42.
248Temple NJ, Nestle M. Population nutrition, health promotion and government policy. In: Wilson T, Temple NJ, eds. Nutritional Health: Strategies for Diseases Prevention. Totowa, NJ: Humana, 2001; 13–29.