1 Pi-Sunyer, FX. Medical hazards of obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine 1993; 119: 655–660.
2 Higgins, M, Kannel, W, Garrison, R, Pinsky, J, Stokes, J. Hazards of obesity – the Framingham experience. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1988; 723: 23–36.
3 Must, A, Spadano, J, Coakley, EH, Field, AE, Colditz, G, Dietz, WH. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282: 1523–1529.
4 Stevens, J, Cai, J, Pamuk, ER, Williamson, DF, Thun, MJ, Wood, JL. The effect of age on the association between body mass index and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 1998; 338: 1–7.
5 Wei, M, Gaskill, SP, Haffner, SM, Stern, MP. Waist circumference as the best predictor of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus compared to BMI, WHR other anthropometric measurements in Mexican Americans: a 7-year prospective study. Obesity Research 1997; 5: 16–23.
6 Folsom, AR, Kaye, SA, Sellers, TA, Hong, CP, Cerhan, JR, Potter, JD, et al. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 1993; 269: 483–487.
7 Pi-Sunyer, FX. Obesity: criteria and classification. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2000; 59: 505–509.
8 Prineas, RJ, Folsom, AR, Kaye, SA. Central adiposity and increased risk of coronary artery disease mortality in older women. Annals of Epidemiology 1993; 3: 35–41.
9 Pouliot, MC, Despres, JP, Lemieux, S, Moorjani, S, Bouchard, C, Tremblay, A, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. American Journal of Cardiology 1994; 73: 460–468.
10 Reeder, BA, Senthilselvan, A, Despres, JP, Angel, A, Liu, L, Wang, H, et al. The association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with abdominal obesity in Canada. Canada Heart Surveys Research Group. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1997; 157: S39–S54.
11 Esmaillzadeh, A, Mirmiran, P, Azizi, F. Waist-to-hip ratio is a better screening measure for cardiovascular risk factors compared to other anthropometric indicators in Tehranian adult men. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2004; 28: 1325–1332.
12 World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity: Preventing and Managing The Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva: WHO, 1997.
13 Kapantais, E, Tzotzas, T, Ioannidis, I, Mortoglou, A, Bakatselos, S, Kaklamanou, M, et al. First national epidemiological survey on the prevalence of obesity and abdominal fat distribution in Greek adults. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2006; 50: 330–338.
14 Al-Riyami, AA, Afifi, MM. Prevalence and correlates of obesity and central fat accumulation among Omani adults. Saudi Medical Journal 2003; 24: 641–646.
15 Beegom, R, Beegom, R, Niaz, MA, Singh, RB. Diet, central fat accumulation and prevalence of hypertension in the urban population of south India. International Journal of Cardiology 1995; 51: 183–191.
16 Roos, E, Lahelma, E, Virtanen, M, Prattala, R, Pietinen, P. Gender, socioecomomic status and family status as determinants of food behavior. Social Science & Medicine 1998; 46: 1519–1529.
17 Sobal, J, Rauschenbach, B, Frongillo, EA. Marital status changes and body weight changes: a US longitudinal analysis. Social Science & Medicine 2003; 56: 1543–1555.
18 Sobngwi, E, Mbanya, JC, Unwin, NC, Kengne, AP, Fezeu, L, Minkoulou, EM, et al. Physical activity and its relationship with obesity, hypertension and diabetes in urban and rural Cameroon. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2002; 26: 1009–1016.
19 Paeratakul, S, Lovejoy, JC, Ryan, DH, Bray, GA. The relation of gender, and socioeconomic status to obesity co-morbidities in a sample of US adults. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2002; 26: 1205–1210.
20 Azadbakht, L, Mirmiran, P, Azizi, F. Obesity prevalence and its determinants. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004; 20: 426–501.
21 Azizi, F, Azadbakht, L, Mirmiran, P. Trends in overweight, obesity and central fat accumulation in Tehranian adults between 1998–1999 and 2000–2001. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2005; 49: 3–8.
22 Ayatollahi, SM, Carpenter, RG. Height, weight, BMI and weight-for-height of adults in southern Iran: how should obesity be defined? Annals of Human Biology 1993; 20: 9–13.
23 Pishdad, GR. Overweight and obesity in adults aged 20–74 in southern Iran. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1996; 20: 963–965.
24 Azizi, F, Esmaillzadeh, A, Mirmiran, P, Ainy, E. Is there an independent association between waist-to-hip ratio and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women? International Journal of Cardiology 2005; 101: 39–46.
25 Mirmiran, P, Esmaillzadeh, A, Azizi, F. Detection of cardiovascular risk factors by anthropometric measures in Tehranian adults: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004; 58: 1110–1118.
26 World Health Organization (WHO). Measuring Obesity: Classification and Description of Anthropometric Data. Copenhagen: WHO, 1989.
27 Dobbelsteyn, CJ, Joffres, MR, Maclean, DR, Flowerdew, G. A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2001; 25: 625–661.
28 Esmaillzadeh, A, Mirmiran, P, Azizi, F. Evaluation of waist circumference to predict cardiovascular risk factors in an overweight Tehranian population: findings from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 2005; 75: 347–356.
29 Kimiagar, SM, Ghaffarpour, M, Houshiar-Rad, A, Hormozdyari, H, Zellipour, L. Food consumption pattern in the Islamic Republic of Iran and its relation to coronary heart disease. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 1998; 4: 539–547.
30 Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute. National Food Consumption Survey. Tehran: Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, 1995.
31 Ghaffarpour, M, Houshiar-Rad, A, Kianfar, H. The Manual for Household Measures, Cooking Yields Factors and Edible Portion of Foods. Tehran: Keshaverzi Press, 1999.
32 Craig, CL, Marshall, AL, Sjostrom, M, Bauman, AE, Booth, ML, Ainsworth, BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003; 35: 1381–1395.
33 Beck, AT. Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects. London: Staples Press, 1969.
34 Han, TS, Bijnen, FCH, Lean, NEJ, Seidell, JC. Separate association of waist and hip circumference with lifestyle factors. International Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 27: 422–430.
35 Holcomb, CA, Heim, DL, Loughin, TM. Physical activity minimizes the association of body fatness with abdominal obesity in white, premenopausal women: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104: 1859–1862.
36 Kang, HT, Ju, YS, Park, KH, Kwon, YJ, Im, HJ, Paek, DM, et al. Study on the relationship between childhood obesity and various determinants, including socioeconomic factors, in an urban area. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2006; 39: 371–378.
37 Budd, GM, Hayman, LL. Childhood obesity: determinants, prevention, and treatment. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2006; 21: 437–441.
38 Moreira, P, Padrao, P. Educational, economic and dietary determinants of obesity in Portuguese adults: a cross-sectional study. Eating Behaviors 2006; 7: 220–228.
39 Shimokata, H, Muller, DC, Andres, R. Studies in distribution of body fat. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 1989; 261: 1169–1173.
40 Lissner, L, Bengtsson, C, Lapidus, L, Bjorkelund, C. Smoking initiation and cessation in relation to body fat distribution based on data from a study of Swedish women. American Journal of Public Health 1992; 82: 273–275.
41 Lipowicz, A, Gronkiewicz, S, Malina, RM. Body mass index, overweight and obesity in married and never married men and women in Poland. American Journal of Human Biology 2002; 14: 468–475.
42 Maskarinec, G, Takata, Y, Pagano, I, Carlin, L, Goodman, MT, Le Marchand, L, et al. Trends and dietary determinants of overweight and obesity in a multiethnic population. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2006; 14: 717–726.
43 Mace, K, Shahkhalili, Y, Aprikian, O, Stan, S. Dietary fat and fat types as early determinants of childhood obesity: a reappraisal. International Journal of Obesity 2006; 30: S50–S57.
44 Garrow, JS, Webster, JD, Pearson, M, Pacy, PJ, Harpin, G. Inpatient–outpatient randomized comparison of Cambridge diet versus milk diet in 17 obese women over 24 weeks. International Journal of Obesity 1989; 13: 521–529.
45 Carruth, BR, Skinner, JD. The role of dietary calcium and other nutrients in moderation body fat in preschool children. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 25: 559–566.
46 Mirmiran, P, Esmaillzadeh, A, Azizi, F. Dairy consumption and body mass index: an inverse relationship. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2005; 29: 115–121.
47 McCarron, DA, Morris, CD, Henry, HJ, Stanton, JL. Blood pressure and nutrient intake in the United States. Science 1984; 224: 1392–1398.
48 Fleming, KH, Heimbach, JT. Consumption of calcium in the US: food sources and intake levels. Journal of Nutrition 1994; 124: 1426S–1430S.
49 Welberg, JW, Monkelbaan, JF, de Vries, EG, Muskiet, FA, Cats, A, Oremus, ET, et al. Effects of supplemental dietary calcium on quantitative fecal fat excretion in man. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 1994; 38: 185–191.
50 Comuzzie, AG, Allison, DB. The search for human obesity genes. Science 1998; 280: 1374–1377.
51 Shi, H, Dirienzo, D, Zemel, MB. Effects of dietary calcium on adipocyte lipid metabolism and body weight regulation in energy-restricted ap2-agoutio transgenic mice. FASEB Journal 2000; 8: 291–330.
52 Awad, AB, Bernardis, LL, Fink, CS. Failure to demonstrate an effect of dietary fatty acid composition on body composition and parameters of lipid metabolism in mature rats. Journal of Nutrition 1990; 120: 1277–1282.
53 Belury, MA, KempaSteczko, A. Conjugated linoleic acid modulates hepatic lipid composition in mice. Lipids 1997; 32: 199–204.
54 Pihlanto-Leppale, A, Koskinen, P, Piilola, K, Tspasela, T, Korhonen, H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties of whey protein digests: concentration and characterization of active peptides. Journal of Dairy Research 2000; 96: 53–54.
55 Rosell, M, Johansson, G, Berglund, L, Vessby, B, de Faire, U, Hellenius, ML. Associations between the intake of dairy fat and calcium and abdominal obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2004; 28: 1427–1434.
56 Hajian-Tilaki, KO, Heidari, B. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity and the associated factors in urban population aged 20–70 years, in the north of Iran: a population-based study and regression approach. Obesity Reviews 2007; 8: 3–10.