Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 7
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Battino, Maurizio Greabu, Maria and Calenic, Bogdan 2016. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Protection.

    Brock, Gareth R and Chapple, Iain L C 2016. The Potential Impact of Essential Nutrients Vitamins C and D upon Periodontal Disease Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Outcomes. Current Oral Health Reports,

    Alagl, Adel S and Bhat, Subraya Giliyar 2015. Ascorbic acid: New role of an age-old micronutrient in the management of periodontal disease in older adults. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 241.

    Iwasaki, Masanori Taylor, George W. Manz, Michael C. Yoshihara, Akihiro Sato, Misuzu Muramatsu, Kanako Watanabe, Reiko and Miyazaki, Hideo 2014. Oral health status: relationship to nutrient and food intake among 80-year-old Japanese adults. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, Vol. 42, Issue. 5, p. 441.

    Machida, Tatsuya Tomofuji, Takaaki Ekuni, Daisuke Azuma, Tetsuji Takeuchi, Noriko Maruyama, Takayuki Mizutani, Shinsuke Kataoka, Kota Kawabata, Yuya and Morita, Manabu 2014. Severe Periodontitis Is Inversely Associated with Coffee Consumption in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment. Nutrients, Vol. 6, Issue. 10, p. 4476.

    Peltzer, Karl Hewlett, Sandra Yawson, Alfred Moynihan, Paula Preet, Raman Wu, Fan Guo, Godfrey Arokiasamy, Perianayagam Snodgrass, James Chatterji, Somnath Engelstad, Mark and Kowal, Paul 2014. Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 11, Issue. 11, p. 11308.

    Jäntschi, Lorentz Sestraş, Radu E. and Bolboacă, Sorana D. 2013. Modeling the Antioxidant Capacity of Red Wine from Different Production Years and Sources under Censoring. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, Vol. 2013, p. 1.


Dietary antioxidants and periodontal disease in community-based older Japanese: a 2-year follow-up study

  • Masanori Iwasaki (a1), Paula Moynihan (a2), Michael C Manz (a3), George W Taylor (a4), Akihiro Yoshihara (a5), Kanako Muramatsu (a6), Reiko Watanabe (a6) and Hideo Miyazaki (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 22 May 2012

To investigate the longitudinal relationship between the intake of dietary antioxidants and periodontal disease in community-dwelling older Japanese.


A retrospective cohort study, with a follow-up of 2 years (2003–2005). Intakes of dietary antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, α-carotene and β-carotene) were assessed with a validated FFQ. Participants were classified by tertile of antioxidant intake. Full-mouth periodontal status, measured as the clinical attachment level, was recorded at baseline and follow-up examinations. Periodontal disease progression was considered as loss of attachment of 3 mm or greater over the study period at the interproximal site for each tooth. Finally, the number of teeth with periodontal disease progression per person was calculated and was used as the outcome. Poisson regression analysis was conducted, with dietary antioxidants as the main exposure, to estimate their influence on the number of teeth with periodontal disease progression.


Niigata City (Japan).


Dentate individuals aged 75 years in 2003, for whom data were available, were included in the analyses (n 264).


A higher intake of dietary antioxidants was inversely associated with the number of teeth with periodontal disease progression, controlling for other variables. The multivariate-adjusted incidence rate ratios in the first, second and third tertiles were 1·00, 0·76 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·97) and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·93) for vitamin C; 1·00, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·99) and 0·55 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), for vitamin E; and 1·00, 1·02 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·29) and 0·73 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·95) for β-carotene.


The study results suggest that higher intake of antioxidants may mitigate periodontal disease in community-dwelling older Japanese.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary antioxidants and periodontal disease in community-based older Japanese: a 2-year follow-up study
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary antioxidants and periodontal disease in community-based older Japanese: a 2-year follow-up study
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary antioxidants and periodontal disease in community-based older Japanese: a 2-year follow-up study
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.PE Petersen & H Ogawa (2005) Strengthening the prevention of periodontal disease: the WHO approach. J Periodontol 76, 21872193.

2.D Locker , J Ford & JL Leake (1996) Incidence of and risk factors for tooth loss in a population of older Canadians. J Dent Res 75, 783789.

3.M Iwasaki , A Yoshihara , T Hirotomi et al. (2008) Longitudinal study on the relationship between serum albumin and periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 35, 291296.

4.GW Taylor (2001) Bidirectional interrelationships between diabetes and periodontal diseases: an epidemiologic perspective. Ann Periodontol 6, 99112.

5.P Axelsson , J Paulander & J Lindhe (1998) Relationship between smoking and dental status in 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-old individuals. J Clin Periodontol 25, 297305.

6.IL Chapple & JB Matthews (2007) The role of reactive oxygen and antioxidant species in periodontal tissue destruction. Periodontol 2000 43, 160232.

8.IL Chapple (1996) Role of free radicals and antioxidants in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory periodontal diseases. Clin Mol Pathol 49, M247M255.

9.IL Chapple (1997) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in inflammatory diseases. J Clin Periodontol 24, 287296.

10.RJ Waddington , R Moseley & G Embery (2000) Reactive oxygen species: a potential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Oral Dis 6, 138151.

11.NK Lee , YG Choi , JY Baik et al. (2005) A crucial role for reactive oxygen species in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Blood 106, 852859.

12.AC Maritim , RA Sanders & JB Watkins 3rd (2003) Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17, 2438.

13.Y Ozkan , S Yardym-Akaydyn , A Sepici et al. (2007) Oxidative status in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 26, 6468.

14.R Wolfram , A Oguogho , B Palumbo et al. (2005) Enhanced oxidative stress in coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure as indicated by an increased 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha). Eur J Heart Fail 7, 167172.

15.MG Hertog , EJ Feskens , PC Hollman et al. (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342, 10071011.

18.CL Rock , RA Jacob & PE Bowen (1996) Update on the biological characteristics of the antioxidant micronutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E, and the carotenoids. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 693702.

20.M Nishida , SG Grossi , RG Dunford et al. (2000) Dietary vitamin C and the risk for periodontal disease. J Periodontol 71, 12151223.

22.GR Brock , CJ Butterworth , JB Matthews et al. (2004) Local and systemic total antioxidant capacity in periodontitis and health. J Clin Periodontol 31, 515521.

23.DV Sculley & SC Langley-Evans (2003) Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in whole saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation. Clin Sci (Lond) 105, 167172.

24.IL Chapple , GR Brock , MR Milward et al. (2007) Compromised GCF total antioxidant capacity in periodontitis: cause or effect? J Clin Periodontol 34, 103110.

25.JS Kim , JY Park , WY Chung et al. (2004) Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes metabolizing smoking-derived substances and the risk of periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 31, 959964.

27.K Murakami , T Mizoue , S Sasaki et al. (2008) Dietary intake of folate, other B vitamins, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive symptoms in Japanese adults. Nutrition 24, 140147.

28.S Sasaki , F Ushio , K Amano et al. (2000) Serum biomarker-based validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 46, 285296.

29.S Sasaki , R Yanagibori & K Amano (1998) Self-administered diet history questionnaire developed for health education: a relative validation of the test-version by comparison with 3-day diet record in women. J Epidemiol 8, 203215.

30.S Sasaki , R Yanagibori & K Amano (1998) Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for assessment of sodium and potassium: comparison with single 24-hour urinary excretion. Jpn Circ J 62, 431435.

32.LF Brown , JD Beck & RG Rozier (1994) Incidence of attachment loss in community-dwelling older adults. J Periodontol 65, 316323.

33.MS Tonetti & N Claffey (2005) Advances in the progression of periodontitis and proposal of definitions of a periodontitis case and disease progression for use in risk factor research. Group C consensus report of the 5th European Workshop in Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol 32, Suppl. 6, 210213.

34.G Nordstrom , B Bergman , K Borg et al. (1998) A 9-year longitudinal study of reported oral problems and dental and periodontal status in 70- and 79-year-old city cohorts in northern Sweden. Acta Odontol Scand 56, 7684.

35.GW Burton & KU Ingold (1984) β-Carotene: an unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Science 224, 569573.

36.MA Fisher , GW Taylor , BT West et al. (2011) Bidirectional relationship between chronic kidney and periodontal disease: a study using structural equation modeling. Kidney Int 79, 347355.

37.M Meydani (1995) Vitamin E. Lancet 345, 170175.

45.K Katanoda & Y Matsumura (2002) National Nutrition Survey in Japan – its methodological transition and current findings. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 48, 423432.

46.A Yoshihara , R Watanabe , N Hanada et al. (2009) A longitudinal study of the relationship between diet intake and dental caries and periodontal disease in elderly Japanese subjects. Gerodontology 26, 130136.

47.K Tanaka , Y Miyake , S Sasaki et al. (2007) Relationship between intake of vegetables, fruit, and grains and the prevalence of tooth loss in Japanese women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 53, 522528.

48.E Krall , C Hayes & R Garcia (1998) How dentition status and masticatory function affect nutrient intake. J Am Dent Assoc 129, 12611269.

49.A Yoshihara , R Watanabe , M Nishimuta et al. (2005) The relationship between dietary intake and the number of teeth in elderly Japanese subjects. Gerodontology 22, 211218.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *