Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 26
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Géa-Horta, Tatiane Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo Barreto, Maurício Lima and Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo 2016. Factors associated with nutritional outcomes in the mother–child dyad: a population-based cross-sectional study. Public Health Nutrition, p. 1.

    Schrijvers, Jenna McNaughton, Sarah Beck, Kathryn and Kruger, Rozanne 2016. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 8, p. 450.

    Araújo, Joana Teixeira, Joana Gaio, A. Rita Lopes, Carla and Ramos, Elisabete 2015. Dietary patterns among 13-y-old Portuguese adolescents. Nutrition, Vol. 31, Issue. 1, p. 148.

    De Man, Walter and Chartron, Sylvie 2015. Le riz, cette céréale méconnue. Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique, Vol. 50, Issue. 3, p. 165.

    Nwaru, Bright I. Onyeka, Ifeoma N. Ndiokwelu, Chika Esangbedo, Dorothy O. Ngwu, Elizabeth K. and Okolo, Selina N. 2015. Maternal and child dietary patterns and their determinants in Nigeria. Maternal & Child Nutrition, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 283.

    Northstone, Kate Smith, Andrew DAC Cribb, Victoria L and Emmett, Pauline M 2014. Dietary patterns in UK adolescents obtained from a dual-source FFQ and their associations with socio-economic position, nutrient intake and modes of eating. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 17, Issue. 07, p. 1476.

    Okubo, Hitomi Miyake, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Satoshi Tanaka, Keiko Murakami, Kentaro and Hirota, Yoshio 2014. Dietary patterns in infancy and their associations with maternal socio-economic and lifestyle factors among 758 Japanese mother-child pairs: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Maternal & Child Nutrition, Vol. 10, Issue. 2, p. 213.

    Salameh, Pascale Jomaa, Lamis Issa, Carine Farhat, Ghada Salamé, Joseph Zeidan, Nina and Baldi, Isabelle 2014. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 2,

    Shang, Lei O’Loughlin, Jennifer Tremblay, Angelo and Gray-Donald, Katherine 2014. The association between food patterns and adiposity among Canadian children at risk of overweight. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 39, Issue. 2, p. 195.

    Erenoglu, Nazan Ayranci, Unal and Son, Osman 2013. Eating habits and lifestyle in a group Turkish primary education children. Health, Vol. 05, Issue. 03, p. 486.

    Pala, V Lissner, L Hebestreit, A Lanfer, A Sieri, S Siani, A Huybrechts, I Kambek, L Molnar, D Tornaritis, M Moreno, L Ahrens, W and Krogh, V 2013. Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in body mass in European children: a follow-up study on the IDEFICS multicenter cohort. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 67, Issue. 10, p. 1042.

    So, H K Li, A M Choi, K C Sung, R Y T and Nelson, E A S 2013. Regular exercise and a healthy dietary pattern are associated with lower resting blood pressure in non-obese adolescents: a population-based study. Journal of Human Hypertension, Vol. 27, Issue. 5, p. 304.

    Zheluk, Andrey Quinn, Casey Hercz, Daniel and Gillespie, James A 2013. Internet Search Patterns of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Digital Divide in the Russian Federation: Infoveillance Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 15, Issue. 11, p. e256.

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira Adami, Fernando and Falcão, Mário Cícero 2012. Understanding the correlates of adolescents’ dietary intake patterns. A multivariate analysis. Appetite, Vol. 58, Issue. 3, p. 1057.

    Grieger, J. A. Scott, J. and Cobiac, L. 2012. Cluster analysis and food group consumption in a national sample of Australian girls. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 75.

    Richter, Almut Heidemann, Christin Schulze, Matthias B Roosen, Jutta Thiele, Silke and Mensink, Gert BM 2012. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics. BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer Traissac, Pierre El Ati, Jalila Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina Landais, Edwige Achour, Noureddine Delpeuch, Francis Romdhane, Habiba Ben and Maire, Bernard 2011. Nutrition transition among adolescents of a south-Mediterranean country: dietary patterns, association with socio-economic factors, overweight and blood pressure. A cross-sectional study in Tunisia. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,

    Cutler, Gretchen J. Flood, Andrew Hannan, Peter and Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne 2011. Multiple Sociodemographic and Socioenvironmental Characteristics Are Correlated with Major Patterns of Dietary Intake in Adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 111, Issue. 2, p. 230.

    Johnson, Laura van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M. and Wardle, Jane 2011. Individual and family environment correlates differ for consumption of core and non-core foods in children. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 105, Issue. 06, p. 950.

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva and Silva, Érika Christiane Toassa da 2011. Association of Brazilian Adolescents with Healthy Eating: Knowledge, Perceptions and Food Choices. Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 02, Issue. 09, p. 1036.


Dietary patterns in relation to socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics among Greek adolescents: a multivariate analysis

  • Georgia Kourlaba (a1), Demosthenes B Panagiotakos (a1), Kostas Mihas (a2), Alevizos Alevizos (a2), Kostas Marayiannis (a2), Anargiros Mariolis (a2) and Yannis Tountas (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2009

We sought to evaluate the relationship between selected lifestyle and socio-economic characteristics and dietary habits of Greek adolescents.


During 2004, 2118 school adolescents were selected from twelve schools in Vyronas region, Athens. Dietary intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative FFQ. Principal components analysis was applied to extract dietary patterns.


Seven components, explaining the 50 % of the total variation in intake, were extracted. Component 1 (‘junk food’ pattern) was heavily loaded by the consumption of ‘sweet’ and ‘salty’ snacks, soft drinks and other ‘fast foods’. Component 2 was characterized as ‘red meat’ consumption pattern. Component 3 was characterized by the consumption of vegetables, fruits and juices. Component 4 was characterized by the intake of dairy products, pasta and wholegrain bread. Component 5 can be described as rice, fish, potatoes and poultry intake. Component 6 was characterized by the consumption of ‘traditional Greek cooked foods’ and legumes, and component 7 was characterized by the consumption of eggs and white bread. Time spent watching television was positively associated with the ‘junk food’ pattern and inversely associated with the ‘vegetarian/healthy’ pattern. Moreover, the ‘junk food’ pattern was positively related to smoking status and the ‘vegetarian/healthy’ pattern was positively correlated with sports activities outside school.


An unhealthy dietary behaviour is associated with an overall unhealthy lifestyle. Taking into account the fact that unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with increased obesity prevalence, school- or community-based programmes should be conducted promoting healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviours.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary patterns in relation to socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics among Greek adolescents: a multivariate analysis
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary patterns in relation to socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics among Greek adolescents: a multivariate analysis
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary patterns in relation to socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics among Greek adolescents: a multivariate analysis
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.D Yach , C Hawkes , CL Gould & KJ Hofman (2004) The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control. JAMA 291, 26162622.

2.H Boeing , J Wahrendorf & N Becker (1999) EPIC-Germany – a source for studies into diet and risk of chronic diseases. European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Ann Nutr Metab 43, 195204.

3.AR Ness & JW Powles (1997) Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. Int J Epidemiol 26, 113.

4.KP Tercyak & VL Tyc (2006) Opportunities and challenges in the prevention and control of cancer and other chronic diseases: children’s diet and nutrition and weight and physical activity. J Pediatr Psychol 31, 750763.

5.A Waxman (2003) Prevention of chronic diseases: WHO global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Food Nutr Bull 24, 281284.

6.D Neumark-Sztainer , M Story , MD Resnick & RW Blum (1998) Lessons learned about adolescent nutrition from the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. J Am Diet Assoc 98, 14491456.

7.KA Munoz , SM Krebs-Smith , R Ballard-Barbash & LE Cleveland (1997) Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics 100, 323329.

8.RK Johnson , DG Johnson , MQ Wang , H Smiciklas-Wright & HA Guthrie (1994) Characterizing nutrient intakes of adolescents by sociodemographic factors. J Adolesc Health 15, 149154.

9.K Northstone & P Emmett (2005) Multivariate analysis of diet in children at four and seven years of age and associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 751760.

10.Z Shi , N Lien , BN Kumar & G Holmboe-Ottesen (2005) Socio-demographic differences in food habits and preferences of school adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 14391448.

11.J Aranceta , C Perez-Rodrigo , L Ribas & L Serra-Majem (2003) Sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of food patterns in Spanish children and adolescents: the enKid study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1, S40S44.

12.M Story , D Neumark-Sztainer & S French (2002) Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 3 Suppl., S40S51.

14.K North & P Emmett (2000) Multivariate analysis of diet among three-year-old children and associations with socio-demographic characteristics. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) Study Team. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 7380.

15.D Hoglund , G Samuelson & A Mark (1998) Food habits in Swedish adolescents in relation to socioeconomic conditions. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 784789.

16.D Neumark-Sztainer , PJ Hannan , M Story , J Croll & C Perry (2003) Family meal patterns: associations with sociodemographic characteristics and improved dietary intake among adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 317322.

17.E Roos , E Lahelma , M Virtanen , R Prattala & P Pietinen (1998) Gender, socioeconomic status and family status as determinants of food behaviour. Soc Sci Med 46, 15191529.

19.FB Hu (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 39.

20.PK Newby & KL Tucker (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 62, 177203.

21.AK Kant (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 615635.

22.A Basilevsky (1994) Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods: Theory and Applications. New York/Chichester: John Wiley.

23.K Wu , FB Hu , WC Willett & E Giovannucci (2006) Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in US men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 167171.

24.DS Michaud , HG Skinner , K Wu , F Hu , E Giovannucci , WC Willett , GA Colditz & CS Fuchs (2005) Dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk in men and women. J Natl Cancer Inst 97, 518524.

25.TT Fung , FB Hu , MD Holmes , BA Rosner , DJ Hunter , GA Colditz & WC Willett (2005) Dietary patterns and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 116, 116121.

26.TT Fung , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson , KM Rexrode , WC Willett & FB Hu (2004) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and stroke risk in women. Stroke 35, 20142019.

27.R Lowry , H Wechsler , DA Galuska , JE Fulton & L Kann (2002) Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. J Sch Health 72, 413421.

29.C Kennedy (2000) Examining television as an influence on children’s health behaviors. J Pediatr Nurs 15, 272281.

30.HL Taras , JF Sallis , TL Patterson , PR Nader & JA Nelson (1989) Television’s influence on children’s diet and physical activity. J Dev Behav Pediatr 10, 176180.

31.D Neumark-Sztainer , M Story , E Toporoff , JH Himes , MD Resnick & RW Blum (1997) Covariations of eating behaviors with other health-related behaviors among adolescents. J Adolesc Health 20, 450458.

32.A Sanchez-Villegas , M Delgado-Rodriguez , MA Martinez-Gonzalez & J De Irala-Estevez (2003) Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 285292.

33.J De Irala-Estevez , M Groth , L Jahansson , U Oltersdof , R Prattala & MA Martinez-Gonzalez (2000) A systematic review of socio-economic differences in food habits in Europe: consumption of fruit and vegetables. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 706714.

34.JW McClelland , DP Keenan , J Lewis (2001) Review of evaluation tools used to assess the impact of nutrition education on dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity of low-income audiences. J Nutr Educ 33, Suppl. 1, S35S48.

35.AV Diez-Roux , JF Nieto , L Caulfield , HA Tyroler , RL Watson & M Szklo (1999) Neighbourhood differences in diet: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 53, 5563.

36.DB Panagiotakos , CH Pitsavos , C Chrysohoou , J Skoumas , M Toutouza , D Blegrinnos , PK Toutouzas & C Stefanadis (2003) The association between educational status and risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals: the ATTICA study. Ann Epidemiol 14, 188194.

37.I López-Azpiazu , A Sánchez-Villegas , L Johansson , J Petkeviciene , R Prättälä & Martínez-González MA; FAIR-97-3096 Project (2003) Disparities in food habits in Europe: systematic review of educational and occupational differences in the intake of fat. J Hum Nutr Diet 16, 349364.

38.DB Panagiotakos , C Pitsavos , C Chrysohoou , K Vlismas & Y Skoumas , K Palliou & C Stefanadis (2008) Dietary habits mediate the relationship between socio-economic status and CVD risk factors among healthy adults: the ATTICA study. Public Health Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).

39.MG Marmot , AM Adelstein & N Robinson (1978) Changing social class distribution of heart disease. BMJ 2, 11091112.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *