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Disparities in vegetable and fruit consumption: European cases from the north to the south

  • Gun Roos (a1), Lars Johansson (a2), Anu Kasmel (a3), Jurate Klumbiené (a4) and Ritva Prättälä (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2007

To present disparities in consumption of vegetables and fruits in Europe and to discuss how educational level, region and level of consumption influence the variation.


A review of selected studies from 1985 to 1997.


33 studies (13 dietary surveys, nine household budget surveys and 11 health behaviour surveys) representing 15 European countries were selected based on criteria developed as part of the study. Association between educational level and consumption of vegetables and fruits was registered for each study and common conclusions were identified.


In the majority of the studies, with the exception of a few in southern and eastern Europe, consumption of vegetables and fruits was more common among those with higher education. The results suggest that in regions where consumption of vegetables and fruits is more common, the lower social classes tend to consume more of these than the higher social classes.


The differences in the patterns of disparities in vegetable and fruit consumption between regions, as well as within populations, need to be considered when efforts to improve nutrition and health are planned.

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