Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effect of a fruit and vegetable subscription in Danish schools

  • Karen Eriksen (a1) (a2), Jóhanna Haraldsdóttir (a2), Robert Pederson (a1) and Hanne Vig Flyger (a1)
Abstract
AbstractObjective:

To measure the effect of a school fruit and vegetable subscription on children's intake of fruit and vegetables after 5 weeks of intervention.

Setting:

Seven primary schools in Denmark.

Design and methods: Intervention schools (n = 4) were offered a fruit and vegetable subscription comprising one piece per day. Control schools (n = 3) situated in another municipality were not offered the subscription. Intake of fruit and vegetables was measured at baseline and 5 weeks after the start of the subscription. Two methods were used for dietary assessment: a pre-coded 24-hour recall form including total food intake and a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including only fruit and vegetables.

Subjects:

Children aged 6–10 years (n = 804 from intervention schools and n = 689 from control schools). Response rate in the dietary assessment was 31%.

Results:

At intervention schools 45% of the children enrolled in the subscription. After 5 weeks of intervention, both subscribers and non-subscribers had increased their intake of fruit by 0.4 (P = 0.019) and 0.3 (P = 0.008) pieces per school day, respectively, but no change was observed in vegetable intake. Total intake increased only for non-subscribers by 0.4 piece/school day (P = 0.008), mainly due to the consistent increase in fruit intake. No change in intake was measured at control schools. Only the 24-hour recall questionnaire was sensitive enough to pick up the changes of the subscription, whereas the FFQ was not.

Conclusion:

Five weeks with the subscription affected both subscribers and non-subscribers to increase intake of fruit. This may indicate that the subscription had an additional effect of stimulating parents of non-subscribers to supply their children with fruit. The results stress the importance of evaluating the effect of this type of programme, and the carefulness needed in designing the evaluation study.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Karen@cancer.dk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2G Block , B Patterson , A Subar . Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr. Cancer 1992; 18: 129.

3AR Ness , JW Powles . Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 26: 113.

6C Williams . Healthy eating: clarifying advice about fruit and vegetables [published erratum appears in Br. Med. J. 1995; 310: 1665]. Br. Med. J. 1995; 310: 1453–5.

11M Serdula , R Coates , T Byers , Evaluation of a brief telephone questionnaire to estimate fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse study populations. Epidemiology 1993; 4: 455–63.

12SA Smith-Warner , PJ Elmer , L Fosdick , Reliability and comparability of three dietary assessment methods for estimating fruit and vegetable intakes. Epidemiology 1997; 8: 196201.

13B Thompson , W Demark-Wahnefried , G Taylor , Baseline fruit and vegetable intake among adults in seven 5 a day study centers located in diverse geographic areas. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1999; 99: 1241–8.

16M Davis , T Baranowski , K Resnicow , Gimme 5 fruit and vegetables for fun and health: process evaluation. Health Educ. Behav. 2000; 27: 167–76.

17KD Reynolds , FA Franklin , LC Leviton , Methods, results, and lessons learned from process evaluation of the high 5 school-based nutrition intervention. Health Educ. Behav. 2000; 27: 177–86.

18M Story , RW Mays , DB Bishop , 5-a-day Power Plus: process evaluation of a multicomponent elementary school program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Health Educ. Behav. 2000; 27: 187200.

19T Baranowski , M Davis , K Resnicow , Gimme 5 fruit, juice, and vegetables for fun and health: outcome evaluation [published erratum appears in Health Educ. Behav. 2000; 27: 390]. Health Educ. Behav. 2000; 27: 96111.

20KD Reynolds , FA Franklin , D Binkley , Increasing the fruit and vegetable consumption of fourth-graders: results from the high 5 project. Prev. Med. 2000; 30: 309–19.

21SL Gortmaker , LW Cheung , KE Peterson , Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children: eat well and keep moving. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 1999; 153: 975–83.

22Y Manios , J Moschandreas , C Hatzis , Evaluation of a health and nutrition education program in primary school children of Crete over a three-year period. Prev. Med. 1999; 28: 149–59.

23PR Nader , EJ Stone , LA Lytle , Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: the CATCH cohort. Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 1999; 153: 695704.

24WC Willett , E Lenart . Reproducibility and validity of food-frequency questionnaires. In: WC Willett , ed. Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998; 101–47.

24WC Willett , E Lenart . Reproducibility and validity of food-frequency questionnaires. In: WC Willett , ed. Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998; 101–47.

26KL Radimer , P Harvey , L Lytle . Correspondence of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake with dietary intake data. Aust. N.Z. J. Public Health 1997; 21: 703–10.

28R Bergstrand , A Vedin , C Wilhelmsson , Bias due to non-participation and heterogeneous sub-groups in population surveys. J. Chronic Dis. 1983; 36: 725–8.

29S Sonne-Holm , TI Sorensen , G Jensen , Influence of fatness, intelligence, education and sociodemographic factors on response rate in a health survey. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 1989; 43: 369–74.

30R Jackson , LE Chambless , K Yang , Differences between respondents and nonrespondents in a multicenter community-based study vary by gender ethnicity. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1996; 49: 1441–6.

31A Hill , J Roberts , P Ewings , Non-response bias in a lifestyle survey. J. Public Health Med. 1997; 19: 203–7.

32Y Lerman , J Shemer . Epidemiologic characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in health-promotion programs. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 1996; 38: 535–8.

33TA Nicklas , CC Johnson , L Myers , Outcomes of a high school program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption: Gimme 5 – a fresh nutrition concept for students. J. Sch. Health 1998; 68: 248–53.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: