This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
25MI Goran , BA Gower , TR Nagy , RK Johnson . Developmental changes in energy expenditure and physical activity in children: evidence for a decline in physical activity in girls before puberty. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 887–91.
26J Booyens , CR Hervey . The pulse rate as a means of measuring metabolic rate in man. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 1960; 38: 1301–9.
33HJG Emons , DC Groenenboom , KR Westerterp , WHM Saris . Comparison of heart rate monitoring combined with indirect calorimetry and the doubly labelled water method (2H218O) for the measurement of energy expenditure in children. European Journal of Applied Physiology 1992; 65: 99–103
35RJG van den Berg-Emons , WHM Saris , KR Westerterp , MA van Baak . Heart rate monitoring to assess energy expenditure in children with reduced physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1996; 28: 496–501
37U Ekelund , M Sjöström , A Yngve , A Nilsson . Total daily energy expenditure and pattern of physical activity measured by minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in 14–15 year old Swedish adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 54: 195–202.
40A Ashworth . Metabolic rates during recovery from protein-calorie malnutrition: the need for a new concept of specific dynamic action. Nature 1969; 223: 407–9.
47CR Fjeld , DA Schoeller , KH Brown . A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labelled water. Pediatric Research 1989; 25: 503–8.
50NF Butte , JM Hopkinson , WW Wong , EO Smith , KJ Ellis . Body composition during the first 2 years of life: an updated reference. Pediatric Research 2000; 47: 578–85.
53RH Munroe , RL Munroe , HS Shimmin . Children's work in four cultures: determinants and consequences. American Anthropologist 1984; 86: 369–78.
58LE Bratteby , B Sandhagen , H Fan , G Samuelson . A 7-day activity dairy for assessment of daily energy expenditure validated by the doubly labelled water method in adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997; 51: 585–91.
59U Ekelund , A Yngve , M Sjöström . Total daily energy expenditure and patterns of physical activity assessed by two different methods in adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 1999; 9: 257–64.
60WR Leonard , VA Galloway , E Ivakine . Underestimation of daily energy expenditure with the factorial method: implications for anthropological research. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1997; 103: 443–54.
67G Salazar , F Vio , C Garcia , E Aguirre , WA Coward . Energy requirements in Chilean infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2000; 83: F120–3.
70AM Fontvieille , IT Harper , RT Ferraro , M Spraul , E Ravussin . Daily energy expenditure by five-year-old children, measured by doubly labelled water. Journal of Pediatrics 1993; 123: 200–7.
76CM Champagne , NB Baker , JP DeLany , DW Harsha , GA Bray . Assessment of energy intake underreporting by doubly labelled water and observations on reported nutrient intakes in children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 426–33.
77JN Roemmich , PA Clark , V Mai , SS Berr , A Weltman , JD Veldhuis , AD Rogol . Alterations in growth and body composition during puberty: Influence of maturation, gender, body composition, fat distribution, aerobic fitness, and energy expenditure on nocturnal growth hormonal release. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 83: 1440–7.
78LG Bandini , DA Schoeller , WH Dietz . Energy expenditure in obese and nonobese adolescents. Pediatric Research 1990; 27: 198–202
79MS Treuth , R Figueroa-Colon , GR Hunter , RL Weinsier , NF Butte , MI Goran . Energy expenditure and physical fitness in overweight vs non-overweight prepubertal girls. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 1998; 22: 440–7.
81WW Wong . Energy expenditure of female adolescents. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1994; 13: 332–7.
84C Maffeis , Y Schutz , M Zaffanello , R Piccoli , L Pinelli . Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity? Journal of Pediatrics 1994; 124: 348–54.
86DC Brown , CJH Kelnar , FCW Wu . Energy metabolism during male human puberty. Changes in energy expenditure during the onset of puberty in boys. Annals of Human Biology 1996; 23: 273–9.
93PT Katzmarzyk , RM Malina , TMK Song , C Bouchard . Television viewing, physical activity, and health-related fitness of youth in the Québec Family Study. Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 1998; 23: 318–25.
94PT Katzmarzyk , RM Malina , C Bouchard . Physical activity, physical fitness, and coronary heart disease risk factors in youth: The Québec Family Study. Preventive Medicine 1999; 29: 555–62.
98E Bénéfice , C Cames . Physical activity patterns of rural Senegalese adolescent girls during the dry and rainy seasons measured by movement registration and direct observation methods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 53: 636–43.
103KL Andersen , R Masironi , J Rutenfranz , V Seliger , Habitual Physical Activity and Health. WHO Regional Publication, European Series No. 6. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 1978.
107M Cain . The economic activities of children in a village in Bangladesh. Population and Development Review 1977; 3: 201–27.
109MHW Dresen , G de Groot , JJ Brandt Corstius , GHB Krediet , MGH Meijer . Physical work capacity and daily physical activities of handicapped and non-handicapped children. European Journal of Applied Physiology 1982; 48: 241–51.
111D Franklin , MW Harrell . Resource allocation decisions in low-income rural households. Food Policy 1985; 10: 100–8.
112TB Gilliam , PS Freedson , DL Geenen , B Shahraray . Physical activity patterns determined by heart rate monitoring in 6–7 year-old children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1981; 13: 57–65
115Z-C Ho , HM Zi , L Bo , H Ping . Energy expenditure of preschool children in a subtropical area. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 1988; 57: 75–94.
119SE MacConnie , TB Gilliam , DL Geenen , AE Pels . Daily physical activity patterns of prepubertal children involved in a vigorous exercise program. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1982; 3: 202–7.
120C Maffeis , M Zaffanello , L Pinelli , Y Schutz . Total energy expenditure and patterns of activity in 8–10-year-old obese and nonobese children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1996; 23: 256–61.
121E Mueller . The value and allocation of time in rural Botswana. Journal of Development Economics 1984; 15: 329–60.
122RH Munroe , A Koel , RL Munroe , R Bolton , C Michelson , C Bolton . Time allocation in four societies. Ethnology 1983; 22: 355–70.
124M Nag , B White , RC Peet . An anthropological approach to the study of the economic value of children in Java and Nepal. Current Anthropology 1978; 19: 293–306
131J Sunnegardh , LE Bratteby , S Sjolin . Physical activity and sport involvement in 8–13 year old children in Sweden. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1985; 74: 904–12.