Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10–12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

  • Maïté Verloigne (a1), Wendy Van Lippevelde (a2), Lea Maes (a2), Johannes Brug (a3) and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij (a1)...

To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10–12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention).


A literature review to identify observational studies exploring at least one family- or school-based correlate of the specific behaviours, resulting in seventy-six articles.


Eighteen studies were conducted in Europe, forty-one studies in North America and seventeen studies in Australasia.


Healthy children aged 10–12 years.


Parental and maternal physical activity, doing physical activities with parents and parental logistic support were identified as the most important, positive correlates of physical activity. Parental rules was the most important correlate of sedentary behaviour and was inversely related to it. School socio-economic status was positively related to physical activity and inversely related to sedentary behaviour. The available studies suggested a positive relationship between soft drink availability at home and consumption. Soft drink availability and consumption at school were the most important school-based correlates of soft drink consumption. A permissive parenting style was related to more soft drink consumption and less breakfast consumption.


An important role has been awarded to parents, suggesting parents should be involved in obesity prevention programmes. Despite the opportunities a school can offer, little research has been done to identify school-environmental correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in this age group. Obesity prevention programmes can focus on the most important correlates to maximize the effectiveness of the programme. Future research should aim at longitudinal studies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10–12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10–12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10–12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.T Lobstein , L Baur , R Uauy (2004) Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 5, Suppl. 5, 485.

2.P Warschburger (2005) The unhappy obese child. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, Suppl. 2, S127S129.

3.OJ Hill , HR Wyatt & EL Melanson (2000) Genetic and environmental contributions to obesity. Med Clin North Am 84, 333346.

4.T Baranowski & R Jago (2005) Understanding the mechanisms of change in children's physical activity programs. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 33, 163168.

5.J Brug , A Oenema & I Ferreira (2005) Theory, evidence and intervention mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2, 2.

6.SPJ Kremers , TLS Visscher , JC Seidell (2005) Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours – measurement issues. Sports Med 35, 923933.

7.J Brug , SJ te Velde , MJM Chinapaw (2010) Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: the ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework. BMC Public Health 10, 276.

8.I Ferreira , K van der Horst , W Wendel-Vos (2006) Environmental correlates of physical activity in youth – a review and update. Obes Rev 8, 129154.

9.T Gorely , SJ Marshall & SJH Biddle (2004) Couch kids: correlates of television viewing among youth. Int J Behav Med 11, 152163.

10.H Patrick & TA Nicklas (2005) A review of family and social determinants of children's eating patterns and diet quality. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 8392.

12.N Pearson , SJH Biddle & T Gorely (2009) Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. Appetite 52, 17.

13.M Rasmussen , R Krolner , KI Klepp (2006) Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: Quantitative studies. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3, 22.

15.K van der Horst , A Oenema , I Ferreira (2007) A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth. Health Educ Res 22, 203226.

16.K van der Horst , MJ Chin A Paw , JWR Twisk (2007) A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentariness in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39, 12411250.

17.M Golan & S Crow (2004) Parents are key players in the prevention and treatment of weight-related problems. Nutr Rev 62, 3950.

18.F Demory-Luce , M Morales , T Nicklas (2004) Changes in food groups consumption patterns from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 16841691.

19.DH Kelder , CL Peery , KI Klepp (1994) Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity and food choice behaviors. Am J Public Health 84, 11211126.

20.CA Vereecken , K Bobelijn & L Maes (2005) School food policy at primary and secondary schools in Belgium-Flanders: does it influence young people's food habits? Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 271277.

21.A Blaes , G Baquet , E Van Praagh (2011) Physical activity patterns in French youth – from childhood to adolescence – monitored with high-frequency accelerometry. Am J Hum Biol 23, 353358.

22.S Marild , M Bondestam , R Bergström (2004) Prevalence trends of obesity and overweight among 10-year-old children in western Sweden and relationship with parental body mass index. Acta Paediatr 93, 15881595.

23.J Pugliese & B Tinsley (2007) Parental socialization of child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis. J Fam Psychol 21, 331343.

24.WL Johnson-Taylor & JE Everhart (2006) Modifiable environmental and behavioral determinants of overweight among children and adolescents: report of a workshop. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14, 929966.

25.M Story , KM Kaphingst & S French (2006) The role of schools in obesity prevention. Future Child 16, 109142.

26.H Wechsler , RS Devereaux , M Davis (2000) Using the school environment to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Prev Med 31, Suppl. 2, S121S137.

27.SG Affenito , DR Thompson , BA Barton (2005) Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 938945.

28.FJ Elgar , C Roberts , L Moore (2005) Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and weight problems in adolescents in Wales. Public Health 119, 518524.

29.D Jiménez-Pavon , J Kelly & JJ Reilly (2010) Associations between objectively measured habitual physical activity and adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic review. Int J Pediatr Obes 5, 318.

30.SJ Marshall , T Gorely & SJH Biddle (2006) A descriptive epidemiology of screen-based media use in youth: a review and critique. J Adolesc 29, 333349.

31.JP Rey-Lopez , G Vicente-Rodriguez , M Biosca (2008) Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18, 242251.

32.CM Bachman , T Baranowski & TA Nicklas (2006) Is there an association between sweetened beverages and adiposity? Nutr Rev 64, 153174.

35.SP Kremers (2010) Theory and practice in the study of influences on energy balance-related behaviors. Patient Educ Couns 79, 291298.

36.SPJ Kremers , GJ de Bruijn , TLS Visscher (2006) Environmental influences on energy balance-related behaviors: a dual-process view. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3, 9.

37.B Swinburn , G Egger & F Raza (1999) Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med 29, 563570.

38.T Hinkly , D Crawford , J Salmon (2008) Preschool children and physical activity. A review of correlates. Am J Prev Med 34, 435441.

42.GJ Welk (1999) The youth physical activity promotion mode: a conceptual bridge between theory and practice. Quest 51, 523.

43.JC Kimiecik , TS Horn & CS Shurin (1996) Relationships among children's beliefs, perceptions of their parents’ beliefs, and their moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Res Q Exerc Sport 67, 324336.

44.A Schultz & M Northridge (2004) Social determinants of health: implications for environmental health promotion. Health Educ Behav 31, 455471.

45.NJ Pender , SN Walker , M Frank-Stromborg (1990) The Health Promotion Model: Refinement and Validation – Final Report. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Nursing Research.

47.JF Sallis , EBG Simons-Morton , EJ Stone (1992) Determinants of physical activity and interventions in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24, Suppl. 6, S248S257.

48.D Stokols (1992) Establishing and maintaining healthy environments. Towards a social ecology of health promotion. Am Psychol 47, 622.

49.L Breslow (1996) Social ecological strategies for promoting healthy lifestyles. Am J Health Promot 10, 253257.

52.IH Cillero & R Jago (2010) Systematic review of correlates of screen-viewing among young children. Prev Med 51, 310.

53.CL Edwardson & T Gorely (2010) Parental influences on different types and intensities of physical activity in youth: a systematic review. Psychol Sport Exerc 11, 522535.

55.LD Ritchie , G Welk , D Styne (2005) Family environment and pediatric overweight: what is a parent to do? J Am Diet Assoc 105, Suppl. 1, S70S79.

56.M Hohepa , R Scragg , G Schofield (2009) Social support for youth physical activity: importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 4, 54.

57.J Granich , M Rosenberg , M Knuiman (2010) Understanding children's sedentary behaviour: a qualitative study of the family home environment. Health Educ Res 25, 199210.

58.J Salmon & T Shilton (2004) Endorsement of physical activity recommendations for children and youth in Australia. J Sci Med Sport 7, 405406.

59.P Gordon-Larsen , RG McMurray & BM Popkin (2000) Determinants of adolescent physical activity and inactivity patterns. Pediatrics 105, E83.

60.KW Bauer , D Neumark-Sztainer , JA Fulkerson (2011) Familial correlates of adolescent girls’ physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8, 25.

1.RA Abbot , D Macdonald , S Nambiar (2009) The association between walking to school, daily step counts and meeting step targets in 5- to 17-year-old Australian children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 21, 520532.

2.K Ball , VJ Cleland , AF Timperio (2009) Socioeconomic position and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviors: longitudinal findings from the CLAN study. J Phys Act Health 6, 289298.

3.TA Barnett , J O'Loughlin & G Paradis (2002) One- and two-year predictors of decline in physical activity among inner-city schoolchildren. Am J Prev Med 23, 121128.

4.JE Bois , PG Sarrazin , RJ Brustad (2005) Elementary schoolchildren's perceived competence and physical activity involvement: the influences of parents’ role modelling behaviours and perceptions of their child's competence. Psychol Sport Exerc 6, 381397.

5.RR Briefel , A Wilson & PM Gleason (2009) Consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages at school, home, and other locations among school lunch participants and nonparticipants. J Am Diet Assoc 109, Suppl. 2, S79S90.

6.RR Briefel , MK Crepinsek , C Cabili (2009) School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of US public school children. J Am Diet Assoc 109, Suppl. 2, S91S107.

7.NH Brodersen , A Steptoe , DR Boniface (2007) Trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. Br J Sports Med 41, 140144.

8.SA Carlson , JE Fulton , SM Lee (2010) Influence of limit-setting and participation in physical activity on youth screen time. Pediatrics 126, E89E96.

9.A Carver , A Timperio , K Hesketh (2010) Are children and adolescents less active if parents restrict their physical activity and active transport due to perceived risk? Soc Sci Med 70, 17991805.

10.TSY Cheng , LA Tse , ITS Yu (2008) Children's perceptions of parental attitude affecting breakfast skipping in primary sixth-grade students. J Sch Health 78, 203208.

11.V Cleland , A Timperio , J Salmon (2010) Predictors of time spent outdoors among children: 5-year longitudinal findings. J Epidemiol Community Health 64, 400406.

12.V Cleland , T Dwyer , L Blizzard (2008) The provision of compulsory school physical activity: associations with physical activity, fitness and overweight in childhood and twenty years later. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 5, 14.

13.D Crawford , V Cleland , A Timperio (2010) The longitudinal influence of home and neighbourhood environments on children's body mass index and physical activity over 5 years: the CLAN study. Int J Obes (Lond) 34, 11771187.

14.KW Cullen & I Zakeri (2004) Fruits, vegetables, milk and sweetened beverages consumption and access to à la carte/snack bar meals at school. Am J Public Health 94, 463467.

15.KK Davison & R Jago (2009) Change in parent and peer support across ages 9 to 15 yr and adolescent girls’ physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41, 18161825.

17.TM DiLorenzo , RC Stucky-Ropp , JS Van der Wal (1998) Determinants of exercise among children. II. A longitudinal analysis. Prev Med 27, 470477.

18.RK Dishman , AL Dunn , JF Sallis (2010) Social-cognitive correlates of physical activity in a multi-ethnic cohort of middle-school girls: two-year prospective study. J Pediatr Psychol 35, 188198.

19.J Dollman & NR Lewis (2009) Interactions of socioeconomic position with psychosocial and environmental correlates of children's physical activity: an observational study of South Australian families. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 6, 56.

20.SC Duncan , TE Duncan , LA Strycker (2007) A cohort-sequential latent growth model of physical activity from ages 12 to 17 years. Ann Behav Med 33, 8089.

21.MM Fernandes (2008) The effect of soft drink availability in elementary schools on consumption. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 14451452.

22.L Franzini , MN Elliott , P Cuccaro (2009) Influences of physical and social neighborhood environments on children's physical activity and obesity. Am J Public Health 99, 271278.

23.D Freitas , J Maia , G Beunen (2007) Socio-economic status, growth, physical activity and fitness: The Madeira Growth Study. Ann Hum Biol 34, 107122.

24.A Gaina , M Sekine , T Chandola (2009) Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 753757.

25.AW Garcia , MAN Broda , M Frenn (1995) Gender and developmental differences in exercise beliefs among youth and prediction of their exercise behavior. J Sch Health 65, 213219.

26.K Gillander Gådin & A Hammarström (2002) Can school-related factors predict future health behaviour among young adolescents? Public Health 116, 2229.

27.MW Gillman , SL Rifas-Shiman , L Fraizer (2000) Family dinner and diet quality among older children and adolescents. Arch Fam Med 9, 235240.

29.GC Grimm , L Harnack & M Story (2004) Factors associated with soft drink consumption in school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 12441249.

30.M He , L Piché , C Beynon (2010) Screen-related sedentary behaviors: children's and parents’ attitudes, motivations, and practices. J Nutr Edu Behav 42, 1725.

31.CD Heitzler , SL Martin , J Duke (2006) Correlates of physical activity in a national sample of children aged 9–13 years. Prev Med 42, 254260.

32.K Hesketh , M Graham & E Waters (2008) Children's after-school activity: associations with weight status and family circumstance. Pediatr Exerc Sci 20, 8494.

34.JA Kahn , B Huang , MW Gillman (2008) Patterns and determinants of physical activity in US adolescents. J Adolesc Health 42, 369377.

35.SYS Kimm , NW Glynn , AM Kriska (2002) Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. N Engl J Med 347, 709715.

36.E Kolle , J Steene-Johannessen , L Klasson-Heggebø (2009) A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds’ objectively assessed physical activity level. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41, 13681373.

37.CH Lindquist , KD Reynolds & MI Goran (1999) Sociocultural determinants of physical activity among children. Prev Med 29, 305312.

38.KA Madsen , CE McCulloch & PB Crawford (2009) Parent modeling: perceptions of parents’ physical activity predict girls’ activity throughout adolescence. J Pediatr 154, 278283.

39.AM McMinn , EMF van Sluijs , N Wedderkopp (2008) Sociocultural correlates of physical activity in children and adolescents: findings from the Danish arm of the European Youth Heart Study. Pediatr Exerc Sci 20, 319332.

41.GF Moore , L Moore & S Murphy (2009) Normative and cognitive correlates of breakfast skipping in 9–11-year-old schoolchildren in Wales. Appetite 53, 332337.

42.ME Nichol , W Pickett & I Janssen (2009) Associations between school recreational environments and physical activity. J Sch Health 79, 247254.

44.J Nickelson , MG Roseman & MS Forthofer (2003) Associations between parental limits, school vending machine purchases, and soft drink consumption among Kentucky middle school students. J Nutr Educ Behav 42, 115122.

45.J O'Loughlin , G Paradis , N Kishchuk (1999) Prevalence and correlates of physical activity behaviors among elementary schoolchildren in multiethnic, low income, inner-city neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Ann Epidemiol 9, 397407.

46.JR Panter , AP Jones , EMF van Sluijs (2010) Attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions as predictors of active commuting behaviour in school children. J Epidemiol Community Health 64, 4148.

47.JR Panter , AP Jones , EMF van Sluijs (2010) Neighborhood, route, and school environments and children's active commuting. Am J Prev Med 38, 268278.

48.RR Pate , SG Trost , GM Felton (1997) Correlates of physical activity in rural youth. Res Q Exerc Sport 68, 241248.

50.CJ Riddoch , C Mattocks , K Deere (2007) Objective measurement of levels and patterns of physical activity. Arch Dis Child 92, 963969.

51.JN Roemmich , LH Epstein , S Raja (2007) The neighborhood and home environments: disparate relationships with physical activity and sedentary behaviors in youth. Ann Behav Med 33, 2938.

52.JF Sallis , JE Alcaraz , TL McKenzie (1999) Predictors of change in children's physical activity over 20 months – variations by gender and level of adiposity. Am J Prev Med 16, 222229.

53.J Salmon , A Timperio , A Telford (2005) Association of family environment with children's television viewing and with low level of physical activity. Obes Res 13, 19391951.

54.RP Saunders , RR Pate , GM Felton (1997) Development of questionnaires to measure psychosocial influences on children's physical activity. Prev Med 26, 241247.

55.AE Springer , SH Kelder & DM Hoelscher (2006) Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3, 8.

56.AE Springer , SH Kelder , CR Barroso (2010) Parental influences on television watching among children living on the Texas–Mexico border. Prev Med 51, 112117.

57.A Timperio , D Crawford , A Telford (2003) Perceptions about the local neighborhood and walking and cycling among children. Prev Med 38, 3947.

58.A Timperio , K Ball , J Salmon (2006) Family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school. Am J Prev Med 30, 4551.

59.SG Trost , RR Pate , DS Ward (1999) Determinants of physical activity in active and low-active, sixth grade African-American youth. J Sch Health 69, 2933.

60.SG Trost , RR Pate , DS Ward (1999) Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in preadolescent youth. Am J Prev Med 17, 120126.

61.SG Trost , RR Pate , R Saunders (1997) A prospective study of the determinants of physical activity in rural fifth-grade children. Prev Med 26, 257263.

62.JB Unger , K Reynolds , S Shakib (2004) Acculturation, physical activity, and fast-food consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. J Community Health 29, 467481.

63.J Utter , R Scragg , CN Mhurchu (2007) At-home breakfast consumption among New Zealand: associations with body mass index and related nutrition behaviors. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 570576.

65.FJ Van Lenthe , CA Boreham , JWR Twisk (2001) Socio-economic position and coronary heart disease risk factors in youth – findings from the Young Hearts Project in Northern Ireland. Eur J Public Health 11, 4350.

66.EMF van Sluijs , PML Skidmore , K Mwanza (2008) Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people). BMC Public Health 8, 388.

67.C Vereecken , E Legiest , I De Bourdeaudhuij (2009) Associations between general parenting styles and specific food-related parenting practices and children's food consumption. Am J Health Promot 23, 233240.

68.LC Villard , L Rydén & A Stahle (2007) Predictors of healthy behaviours in Swedish school children. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 14, 366372.

69.CC Voorhees , D Murray , G Welk (2005) The role of peer social network factors and physical activity in adolescent girls. Am J Health Behav 29, 183190.

70.H Vue & M Reicks (2007) Individual and environmental influences on intake of calcium-rich food and beverages by young Hmong adolescent girls. J Nutr Educ Behav 39, 264272.

71.A Wagner , C Klein-Platat , D Arveiler (2004) Parent–child physical activity relationships in 12-year old French students do not depend on family socioeconomic status. Diabetes Metab 30, 359366.

72.GJ Welk , K Wood & G Morss (2003) Parental influences on physical activity in children: an exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatr Exerc Sci 15, 1933.

73.JL Wiecha , D Finkelstein , PJ Troped (2006) School vending machine use and fast-food restaurant use are associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake in youth. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 16241630.

74.JL Wiecha , AM Sobol , KE Peterson (2001) Household television access: associations with screen time, reading, and homework among youth. Ambul Pediatr 1, 244251.

75.BH Wrotniak , N Zimmer , A Dingle (2007) Physical activity, health, and dietary patterns of middle school children. Pediatr Phys Ther 19, 203210.

76.M Yannakoulia , K Papanikolaou , I Hatzopoulou (2008) Association between family divorce and children's BMI and meal patterns: The GENDAI study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 13821387.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Appendices

Verloigne Supplementary Appendices
Verloigne Supplementary Appendices

 PDF (127 KB)
127 KB


Altmetric attention score