Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway?

  • Phillip Baker (a1), Julie Smith (a1), Libby Salmon (a1), Sharon Friel (a1), George Kent (a2), Alessandro Iellamo (a3), JP Dadhich (a4) and Mary J Renfrew (a5)...
Abstract
Abstract Objective

The marketing of infant/child milk-based formulas (MF) contributes to suboptimal breast-feeding and adversely affects child and maternal health outcomes globally. However, little is known about recent changes in MF markets. The present study describes contemporary trends and patterns of MF sales at the global, regional and country levels.

Design

Descriptive statistics of trends and patterns in MF sales volume per infant/child for the years 2008–2013 and projections to 2018, using industry-sourced data.

Setting

Eighty countries categorized by country income bracket, for developing countries by region, and in countries with the largest infant/child populations.

Subjects

MF categories included total (for ages 0–36 months), infant (0–6 months), follow-up (7–12 months), toddler (13–36 months) and special (0–6 months).

Results

In 2008–2013 world total MF sales grew by 40·8 % from 5·5 to 7·8 kg per infant/child/year, a figure predicted to increase to 10·8 kg by 2018. Growth was most rapid in East Asia particularly in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam and was led by the infant and follow-up formula categories. Sales volume per infant/child was positively associated with country income level although with wide variability between countries.

Conclusions

A global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) transition towards diets higher in MF is underway and is expected to continue apace. The observed increase in MF sales raises serious concern for global child and maternal health, particularly in East Asia, and calls into question the efficacy of current regulatory regimes designed to protect and promote optimal IYCF. The observed changes have not been captured by existing IYCF monitoring systems.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway?
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email phillip.baker@anu.edu.au
References
Hide All
1. R Chowdhury , B Sinha , MJ Sankar et al. (2015) Breastfeeding and maternal health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr 104, 96113.

2. MJ Sankar , B Sinha , R Chowdhury et al. (2015) Optimal breastfeeding practices and infant and child mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr 104, 313.

3. LM Grummer-Strawn & N Rollins (2015) Summarising the health effects of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatr 104, 12.

4. G Jones , RW Steketee , RE Black et al. (2003) How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet 362, 6571.

8. CG Victora , R Bahl , AJD Barros et al. (2016) Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet 387, 475490.

9. M Bartick , AM Stuebe , EB Schwarz et al. (2013) Cost analysis of maternal disease associated with suboptimal breastfeeding. Obstet Gynecol 122, 111119.

10. S Pokhrel , M Quigley , J Fox-Rushby et al. (2014) Potential economic impacts from improving breastfeeding rates in the UK. Arch Dis Child 100, 334340.

11. JP Smith , JF Thompson & DA Ellwood (2002) Hospital system costs of artificial infant feeding: estimates for the Australian Capital Territory. Aust N Z J Public Health 26, 543551.

12. NC Rollins , N Bhandari , N Hajeebhoy et al. (2016) Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices? Lancet 387, 491504.

16. N Berry , S Jones & D Iverson (2011) Circumventing the WHO Code? An observational study. Arch Dis Child 97, 320325.

18. A Cattaneo , P Pani , C Carletti et al. (2014) Advertisements of follow-on formula and their perception by pregnant women and mothers in Italy. Arch Dis Child 100, 323328.

21. BL Horta , C Loret de Mola & CG Victora (2015) Long-term consequences of breastfeeding on cholesterol, obesity, systolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr 104, 3037.

22. G Bowatte , R Tham , KJ Allen et al. (2015) Breastfeeding and childhood acute otitis media: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr 104, 8595.

23. KG Peres , AM Cascaes , GG Nascimento et al. (2015) Effect of breastfeeding on malocclusions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr 104, 5461.

24. CJ Lodge , DJ Tan , MXZ Lau et al. (2015) Breastfeeding and asthma and allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr 104, 3853.

25. FR Hauck , JM Thompson , KO Tanabe et al. (2011) Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 128, 103110.

26. BL Horta , C Loret de Mola & CG Victora (2015) Breastfeeding and intelligence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr 104, 1419.

28. S Vandevijvere , C Monteiro , S Krebs‐Smith et al. (2013) Monitoring and benchmarking population diet quality globally: a step‐wise approach. Obes Rev 14, 135149.

29. D Stuckler , M McKee , S Ebrahim et al. (2012) Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco. PLoS Med 9, e1001235.

30. S Basu , M McKee , G Galea et al. (2013) Relationship of soft drink consumption to global overweight, obesity, and diabetes: a cross-national analysis of 75 countries. Am J Public Health 103, 20712077.

31. P Baker & S Friel (2014) Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia. Obes Rev 15, 564577.

37. DL Kaplan & KM Graff (2008) Marketing breastfeeding – reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices. J Urban Health 85, 486504.

38. A Drewnowski & BM Popkin (1997) The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutr Rev 55, 3143.

39. BM Popkin , LS Adair & SW Ng (2012) Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev 70, 321.

40. C Hawkes (2006) Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Glob Health 2, 4.

43. J Smith & R Forrester (2013) Who pays for the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding? An analysis of maternal time costs. J Hum Lact 29, 547555.

44. JA Ricci , NW Jerome , I Sirageldin et al. (1996) The significance of children’s age in estimating the effect of maternal time use on children’s well-being. Soc Sci Med 42, 651659.

45. JP Brady (2012) Marketing breast milk substitutes: problems and perils throughout the world. Arch Dis Child 97, 529532.

46. EG Piwoz & SL Huffman (2015) The impact of marketing of breast-milk substitutes on WHO-recommended breastfeeding practices. Food Nutr Bull 36, 373386.

47. A McFadden , F Mason , J Baker et al. (2016) Spotlight on infant formula: coordinated global action needed. Lancet 387, 413415.

48. L Salmon (2015) Food security for infants and young children: an opportunity for breastfeeding policy? Int Breastfeed J 10, 1.

49. P Baker , A Kay & H Walls (2014) Trade and investment liberalization and Asia’s noncommunicable disease epidemic: a synthesis of data and existing literature. Glob Health 10, 66.

50. CW Binns , MK Lee , L Tang et al. (2012) Ethical issues in infant feeding after disasters. Asia Pac J Public Health 24, 672680.

51. J Smith (2015) Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers’ milk. Int Breastfeed J 10, 9.

52. MH Labbok (2012) Global baby-friendly hospital initiative monitoring data: update and discussion. Breastfeed Med 7, 210222.

53. G Kent (2015) Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health. Int Breastfeed J 10, 6.

55. CK Lutter & AL Morrow (2013) Protection, promotion, and support and global trends in breastfeeding. Adv Nutr 4, 213219.

57. A Liu , Y Dai , X Xie et al. (2014) Implementation of international code of marketing breast-milk substitutes in China. Breastfeed Med 9, 467472.

59. SW Abrahams (2012) Milk and social media: online communities and the international code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes. J Hum Lact 28, 400406.

64. P Baker , A Kay & H Walls (2015) Strengthening trade and health governance capacities to address non‐communicable diseases in Asia: challenges and ways forward. Asia Pac Policy Stud 2, 310323.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 55
Total number of PDF views: 480 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1331 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.