Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC–Oxford

  • Paul N Appleby (a1), Gwyneth K Davey (a1) and Timothy J Key (a1)
Abstract
AbstractObjective:

To compare the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four diet groups (meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans) and to investigate dietary and other lifestyle factors that might account for any differences observed between the groups.

Design:

Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC–Oxford).

Setting:

United Kingdom.

Subjects:

Eleven thousand and four British men and women aged 20–78 years at blood pressure measurement.

Results:

The age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported hypertension was significantly different between the four diet groups, ranging from 15.0% in male meat eaters to 5.8% in male vegans, and from 12.1% in female meat eaters to 7.7% in female vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians having similar and intermediate prevalences. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly different between the four diet groups, with meat eaters having the highest values and vegans the lowest values. The differences in age-adjusted mean blood pressure between meat eaters and vegans among participants with no self-reported hypertension were 4.2 and 2.6 mmHg systolic and 2.8 and 1.7 mmHg diastolic for men and women, respectively. Much of the variation was attributable to differences in body mass index between the diet groups.

Conclusions:

Non-meat eaters, especially vegans, have a lower prevalence of hypertension and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures than meat eaters, largely because of differences in body mass index.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC–Oxford
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC–Oxford
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC–Oxford
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Paul.Appleby@cancer.org.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1J Stamler , R Stamler , JD Neaton . Blood pressure, systolic and diastolic, and cardiovascular risks: US population data. Arch. Intern. Med. 1993;153:598615.

2PC van den Hoogen , EJ Feskens , NJ Nagelkerke , The relation between blood pressure and mortality due to coronary heart disease among men in different parts of the world. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000;342:18.

3S MacMahon , R Peto , J Cutler , Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. 1. Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990;335:765–74.

4P Elliott , M Marmot , A Dyer , The INTERSALT study: main results, conclusions, and some implications. Clin. Exp. Hypertens. – Part A, Theory & Practice 1989;11(5–6):1025–34.

5P Elliott , J Stamler , R Nichols , INTERSALT revisited: further analyses of 24-hour sodium excretion and blood pressure within and across populations. Br. Med. J. 1996;312:1249–53.

6FM Sacks , LP Stevkey , WM Vollmer , Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001;344:310.

10IL Rouse , BK Armstrong , LJ Beilin . The relationship of blood pressure to diet and lifestyle in two religious populations. J. Hypertens. 1983; 1:6571.

21SA Bingham , C Gill , A Welch , Validation of dietary assessment methods in the UK arm of EPIC using weighed records, and 24-hour urinary nitrogen and potassium and serum vitamin C and carotenoids as biomarkers. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1997;26(Suppl. 1):137S–51S.

24N Day , N McKeown , M Wong , Epidemiological assessment of diet: a comparison of a 7-day diary with a food frequency questionnaire using urinary markers of nitrogen, potassium and sodium. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2001;30:309–17.

26BM Margetts , LJ Beilin , R Vandongen , Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Br. Med. J. 1986;293:1468–71.

27LJ Beilin , V Burke . Vegetarian diet components, protein and blood pressure: which nutrients are important? Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 1995;22:195–8.

28P Pauletto , M Puato , MG Caroli , Blood pressure and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles of fish-diet and vegetarian villagers in Tanzania: the Lugalawa study. Lancet 1996;348:784–8.

29TA Mori , LJ Beilin . Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, blood lipids and cardiovascular risk reduction. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2001;12:1117.

30DA McCarron , ME Reusser . Are low intakes of calcium and potassium important causes of cardiovascular disease? Am. J. Hypertens. 2001;14:206S–12S.

32J McDougall , K Litzau , E Haver , Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1995;14:491–6.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: