Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Maize meal fortification is associated with improved vitamin A and iron status in adolescents and reduced childhood anaemia in a food aid-dependent refugee population

  • Andrew Seal (a1), Emmanuel Kafwembe (a2), Ismail AR Kassim (a1), Mei Hong (a1), Annie Wesley (a3), John Wood (a4), Fathia Abdalla (a5) and Tina van den Briel (a4)...
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To assess changes in the Fe and vitamin A status of the population of Nangweshi refugee camp associated with the introduction of maize meal fortification.

Design

Pre- and post-intervention study using a longitudinal cohort.

Setting

Nangweshi refugee camp, Zambia.

Subjects

Two hundred and twelve adolescents (10–19 years), 157 children (6–59 months) and 118 women (20–49 years) were selected at random by household survey in July 2003 and followed up after 12 months.

Results

Maize grain was milled and fortified in two custom-designed mills installed at a central location in the camp and a daily ration of 400 g per person was distributed twice monthly to households as part of the routine food aid ration. During the intervention period mean Hb increased in children (0·87 g/dl; P < 0·001) and adolescents (0·24 g/dl; P = 0·043) but did not increase in women. Anaemia decreased in children by 23·4 % (P < 0·001) but there was no significant change in adolescents or women. Serum transferrin receptor (log10-transformed) decreased by −0·082 μg/ml (P = 0·036) indicating an improvement in the Fe status of adolescents but there was no significant decrease in the prevalence of deficiency (−8·5 %; P = 0·079). In adolescents, serum retinol increased by 0·16 μmol/l (P < 0·001) and vitamin A deficiency decreased by 26·1 % (P < 0·001).

Conclusions

The introduction of fortified maize meal led to a decrease in anaemia in children and a decrease in vitamin A deficiency in adolescents. Centralised, camp-level milling and fortification of maize meal is a feasible and pertinent intervention in food aid operations.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Maize meal fortification is associated with improved vitamin A and iron status in adolescents and reduced childhood anaemia in a food aid-dependent refugee population
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Maize meal fortification is associated with improved vitamin A and iron status in adolescents and reduced childhood anaemia in a food aid-dependent refugee population
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Maize meal fortification is associated with improved vitamin A and iron status in adolescents and reduced childhood anaemia in a food aid-dependent refugee population
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Email a.seal@ich.ucl.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.P Malfait , A Moren , JC Dillon , A Brodel , G Begkoyian , MG Etchegorry , G Malenga & P Hakewill (1993) An outbreak of pellagra related to changes in dietary niacin among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Int J Epidemiol 22, 504511.

2.A Tomkins & CJ Henry (1992) Comparison of nutrient composition of refugee rations and pet foods. Lancet 340, 367368.

3.MJ Toole (1992) Micronutrient deficiencies in refugees. Lancet 339, 12141216.

10.PEA Andang’o , SJM Osendarp , R Ayah , CE West , DL Mwaniki , CA De Wolf , R Kraaijenhagen , FJ Kok & H Verhoef (2007) Efficacy of iron-fortified whole maize flour on iron status of schoolchildren in Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 369, 17991806.

15.AJ Seal (2006) NutVal 2006: A Spreadsheet Application for the Planning, Calculation, and Monitoring of Food Aid Rations. London: UCL Centre for International Health and Development/WFP/UNHCR.

17.LE Torheim , I Barikmo , CL Parr , A Hatloy , F Ouattara & A Oshaug (2003) Validation of food variety as an indicator of diet quality assessed with a food frequency questionnaire for Western Mali. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 12831291.

23.U Ramakrishnan (2002) Prevalence of micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Nutr Rev 60, S46S52.

24.J Hegyi , RA Schwartz & V Hegyi (2004) Pellagra: dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea. Int J Dermatol 43, 15.

26.SR Lynch (2005) The impact of iron fortification on nutritional anaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 18, 333346.

27.CG Victora , JP Habicht & J Bryce (2004) Evidence-based public health: moving beyond randomized trials. Am J Public Health 94, 400405.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: