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Marketing foods to children and adolescents: licensed characters and other promotions on packaged foods in the supermarket

  • Jennifer L Harris (a1), Marlene B Schwartz (a1) and Kelly D Brownell (a1)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To analyse cross-promotions targeted to children and adolescents on packaging in the supermarket.

Design

On three occasions from 2006 to 2008, researchers purchased all foods in a large supermarket that included a cross-promotion on the package. A total of 397 products were categorized by promotional partner, food category, targeted age group, promotion type, product nutrition, and company policies on marketing to children.

Results

The number of products with youth-oriented cross-promotions increased by 78 % during the period examined. Overall, 71 % of cross-promotions involved third-party licensed characters and 57 % appealed primarily to children under 12 years of age; however, the use of other forms of promotions increased from 5 % of the total in 2006 to 53 % in 2008, and promotions targeting pre-school and general audiences increased from 23 % to 54 % of the total. Only 18 % of products met accepted nutrition standards for foods sold to youth, and nutritional quality declined during the period examined. Food manufacturers with policies limiting marketing to children represented 65 % of all youth-oriented cross-promotions, their use of cross-promotions increased significantly, and the nutritional quality of their products did not improve. Some media companies did reduce the use of their properties on food promotions.

Conclusions

Overall, the supermarket environment worsened due to an increase in cross-promotions targeted to children and adolescents and a decline in the nutritional quality of these products. This analysis failed to find improvements in food marketing to youth and highlights the need to expand current industry self-regulatory pledges.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Jennifer.harris@yale.edu
Linked references
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

4.M Story & S French (2004) Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 1, 3.

7.C Elliott (2008) Assessing ‘fun foods’: nutritional content and analysis of supermarket foods targeted at children. Obes Rev 9, 368377.

18.JL Harris , T Lobstein , JL Pomeranz & KD Brownell (2009) A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done. Annu Rev Public Health 30, 211225.

19.C Hawkes (2007) Regulating food marketing to young people worldwide: trends and policy drivers. Am J Public Health 97, 19621973.

21.P Wilde (2008) Self-regulation and the response to concerns about food and beverage marketing to children in the United States. Nutr Rev 67, 155166.

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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
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