This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2.A Romero-Corral , VM Montori , VK Somers et al. (2006) Association of bodyweight with total mortality and with cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of cohort studies. Lancet 368, 666–678.
3.BA Swinburn , G Sacks , KD Hall et al. (2011) The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet 378, 804–814.
4.YC Wang , K McPherson , T Marsh et al. (2011) Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet 378, 815–825.
5.DT Levy , PL Mabry , YC Wang et al. (2011) Simulation models of obesity: a review of the literature and implications for research and policy. Obes Rev 12, 378–394.
7.D Withrow & DA Alter (2011) The economic burden of obesity worldwide: a systematic review of the direct costs of obesity. Obes Rev 12, 131–141.
10.MM Finucane , GA Stevens , MJ Cowan et al. (2011) National, regional and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants. Lancet 377, 557–567.
11.KM Flegal , MD Carroll , CL Ogden et al. (2010) Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA 303, 235–241.
12.R Micciolo , V Di Francesco , F Fantin et al. (2010) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Italy (2001–2008): is there a rising obesity epidemic? Ann Epidemiol 20, 258–264.
13.B Rokholm , JL Baker & TI Sorensen (2010) The levelling off of the obesity epidemic since the year 1999 – a review of evidence and perspectives. Obes Rev 11, 835–846.
14.A Romero-Corral , VK Somers , J Sierra-Johnson et al. (2008) Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 959–966.
16.M Dalton , AJ Cameron , PZ Zimmet et al. (2003) Waist circumference, waist–hip ratio and body mass index and their correlation with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Australian adults. J Intern Med 254, 555–563.
18.TS Han , EM van Leer , JC Seidell et al. (1995) Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ 311, 1401–1405.
19.MEJ Lean , TS Han & CE Morrison (1995) Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ 311, 58–61.
20.JB Croft , NL Keenan , DP Sheridan et al. (1995) Waist-to-hip ratio in a biracial population: measurement, implications and cautions for using guidelines to define high risk for cardiovascular disease. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 60–64.
21.M Ashwell & S Gibson (2009) Waist to height ratio is a simple and effective obesity screening tool for cardiovascular risk factors: analysis of data from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of adults aged 19–64 years. Obes Facts 2, 97–103.
22.T Pischon , H Boeing , K Hoffmann et al. (2008) General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N Engl J Med 359, 2105–2120.
24.D Howel (2012) Trends in the prevalence of abdominal obesity and overweight in English adults (1993–2008). Obesity (Silver Spring) 20, 1750–1752.
25.C Li , ES Ford , LC McGuire et al. (2007) Increasing trends in waist circumference and abdominal obesity among US adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 216–216.
27.KE Harrington , PJ Robson , M Kiely et al. (2001) The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey: survey design and methodology. Public Health Nutr 4, 1037–1042.
36.S Yusuf , S Hawken , S Ounpuu et al. (2005) Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries: a case–control study. Lancet 366, 1640–1649.
37.NJ Sebire , M Jolly , JP Harris et al. (2001) Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 1175–1182.
38.LE Edwards , WF Dickes , IR Alton et al. (1978) Pregnancy in the massively obese: course, outcome, and obesity prognosis of the infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol 131, 479–483.
39.AT Bianco , SW Smilen , Y Davis et al. (1998) Pregnancy outcome and weight gain recommendations for the morbidly obese woman. Obstet Gynecol 91, 97–102.
40.N Moghbeli , E Pare & G Webb (2008) Practical assessment of maternal cardiovascular risk in pregnancy. Congenit Heart Dis 3, 308–316.
42.JB Dixon (2010) The effect of obesity on health outcomes. Mol Cell Endocrinol 316, 104–108.
44.L Fontana , JC Eagon , ME Trujillo et al. (2007) Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans. Diabetes 56, 1010–1013.
45.JP Despres , S Moorjani , PJ Lupien et al. (1990) Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis 10, 497–511.
46.J Stevens , EG Katz & RR Huxley (2010) Association between gender, age and waist circumference. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 6–15.
47.MJ Cartwright , T Tchkonia & JL Kirkland (2007) Aging in adipocytes: potential impact of inherent, depot-specific mechanisms. Exp Gerontol 42, 463–471.
48.EA Boylan , BA McNulty , J Walton et al. (2011) Analysis of the anthropometric data of adults aged 65+ years participating in the National Adult Nutrition Survey. Proc Nutr Soc 70, OCE3, E51.