Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases

  • Angel Gil (a1), Rosa M Ortega (a2) and José Maldonado (a3)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Wholegrain cereals are rich in nutrients and many phytochemical compounds, with recognised benefits for health, including dietary fibre, a number of phenolic compounds, lignans, vitamins and minerals and other bioactive components. The aim of the present work is to review the fundamental studies that support the consumption of wholegrain cereals and bread to prevent chronic diseases.

Design

Descriptive review considering human studies.

Setting and subjects

Subjects included in randomised intervention trials and cohort studies from different countries published up to 2010.

Results

Several studies show consistently that subjects who ingest three or more portions of foods per day based on wholegrain cereals have a 20–30 % lower risk of CVD than subjects who ingest low quantities of cereals. This level of protection is not observed with the ingestion of refined cereals, these being even higher than with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Likewise, high intake of wholegrain cereals and their products, such as whole-wheat bread, is associated with a 20–30 % reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Finally, protection against the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps, other cancers of the digestive tract, cancers related to hormones and pancreatic cancer has been associated with the regular consumption of wholegrain cereals and derived products.

Conclusions

The regular intake of wholegrain cereals can contribute to reduction of risk factors related to non-communicable chronic diseases.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email agil@ugr.es
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.J Slavin (2004) Whole grains and human health. Nutr Res Rev 17, 99110.

3.BJ Venn & TJ Green (2007) Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, Suppl. 1, S122S131.

9.HN Englyst , SM Kingman , GJ Hudson (1996) Measurement of resistant starch in vitro and in vivo. Br J Nutr 75, 749755.

10.SW Rizkalla , M Laromiguiere , M Champ (2007) Effect of baking process on postprandial metabolic consequences: randomized trials in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 175183.

14.AS Truswell (2002) Cereal grains and coronary heart disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 114.

16.P Pietinen , EB Rimm , P Korhonen (1996) Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Circulation 94, 27202727.

17.JN Morris , JW Marr & DG Clayton (1977) Diet and heart: a postscript. BMJ 2, 13071314.

18.MA Pereira , E O'Reilly , K Augustsson (2004) Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease. A pooled analysis of cohort studies. Arch Intern Med 164, 370376.

19.EB Rimm , A Ascherio , E Giovannucci (1996) Vegetable, fruit and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 275, 447451.

23.AT Erkkilä , DM Herrington , D Mozaffarian (2005) Cereal fiber and whole-grain intake are associated with reduced progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. Am Heart J 150, 94101.

26.MA Murtaugh , DR Jacobs Jr, B Jacob (2003) Epidemiological support for the protection of whole grains against diabetes. Proceed Nutr Soc 62, 143149.

29.CJ Henry , HJ Lightowler , EA Tydeman (2006) Use of low-glycaemic index bread to reduce 24-h blood glucose: implications for dietary advice to non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Int J Food Sci Nutr 57, 273278.

30.F Marangoni & A Poli (2008) The glycemic index of bread and biscuits is markedly reduced by the addition of a proprietary fiber mixture to the ingredients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18, 602605.

32.J Salmerón , JE Manson , MJ Stampfer (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472477.

33.J Salmerón , A Ascherio , EB Rimm (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545550.

43.L Qi , RM van Dam , S Liu (2006) Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women. Diabetes Care 29, 207211.

44.DR Jacobs Jr, L Marquart , J Slavin (1998) Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer 30, 8596.

45.L Chatenoud , A Tavani , C La Vecchia (1998) Whole-grain food intake and cancer risk. Int J Cancer 77, 2428.

46.SC Larsson , E Giovannucci , L Bergkvist (2005) Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60 000 women. BJC 92, 18031807.

47.P Terry , J Lagergren , W Ye (2001) Inverse association between intake of cereal fiber and risk of gastric cardia cancer. Gastroenterology 120, 387391.

48.CM Kasum , DR Jacobs Jr, K Nicodemus (2002) Dietary risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Int J Cancer 99, 267272.

49.CM Kasum , K Nicodemus , LJ Harnack (2001) Whole grain intake and incident endometrial cancer: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Nutr Cancer 39, 180186.

54.HG Mulholland , LJ Murray , CR Cardwell (2009) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of digestive tract neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 568576.

55.SP Borriello , KD Setchell , M Axelson (1985) Production and metabolism of lignans by the human faecal flora. J Applied Bact 58, 3743.

56.H Adlercreutz , T Fotsis , C Bannwart (1986) Urinary estrogen profile determination in young Finnish vegetarian and omnivorous women. J Steroid Biochem 24, 289296.

58.DR Jacobs Jr, MA Pereira , K Stumpf (2002) Whole grain food intake elevates serum enterolactone. Br J Nutr 88, 111116.

59.M Vanharanta , S Voutilainen , TH Rissanen (2003) Risk of cardiovascular disease-related and all-cause death according to serum concentrations of enterolactone. Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Arch Inter Med 163, 10991104.

60.JA Marlett , MI McBurney & JL Slavin (2002) Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Ass 102, 9931000.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score