World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
Ahluwalia, N, Dalmasso, P, Rasmussen, M
et al. (2015) Trends in overweight prevalence among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 25 countries in Europe, Canada and USA from 2002 to 2010. Eur J Public Health
25, Suppl. 2, 28–32.
Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Lawman, HG
et al. (2016) Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988–1994 through 2013–2014. JAMA
Roberts, KC, Shields, M, de Groh, M
et al. (2012) Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: results from the 2009 to 2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep
World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (2015) Guideline: Sugars Intake for Adults and Children. Geneva: WHO.
Yang, Q, Zhang, Z, Gregg, EW
et al. (2014) Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults. JAMA Intern Med
Johnson, RK, Appel, LJ, Brands, M
et al. (2009) Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation
Liu, S, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ
et al. (2000) A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr
Malik, VS, Popkin, BM, Bray, GA
et al. (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation
Bray, GA, Nielsen, SJ & Popkin, BM (2004) Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr
Pollock, NK, Bundy, V, Kanto, W
et al. (2012) Greater fructose consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk markers and visceral adiposity in adolescents. J Nutr
Sievenpiper, JL, de Souza, RJ, Mirrahimi, A
et al. (2012) Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med
Te Morenga, L, Mallard, S & Mann, J (2013) Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ
Wang, H, Steffen, LM, Zhou, X
et al. (2013) Consistency between increasing trends in added-sugar intake and body mass index among adults: the Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980–1982 to 2007–2009. Am J Public Health
Olsen, NJ & Heitmann, BL (2009) Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Obes Rev
Cozma, AI, Sievenpiper, JL, de Souza, RJ
et al. (2012) Effect of fructose on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Diabetes Care
Basu, S, Yoffe, P, Hills, N
et al. (2013) The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One
Davis, JN, Ventura, EE, Weigensberg, MJ
et al. (2005) The relation of sugar intake to β cell function in overweight Latino children. Am J Clin Nutr
Malik, VS, Popkin, BM, Bray, GA
et al. (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation
Sievenpiper, JL, Carleton, AJ, Chatha, S
et al. (2009) Heterogeneous effects of fructose on blood lipids in individuals with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental trials in humans. Diabetes Care
Welsh, JA, Sharma, A, Abramson, JL
et al. (2010) Caloric sweetener consumption and dyslipidemia among US adults. JAMA
Larsson, SC, Bergkvist, L & Wolk, A (2006) Consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr
Moynihan, PJ & Kelly, SAM (2014) Effect on caries of restricting sugars intake: systematic review to inform WHO guidelines. J Dent Res
Ng, SW, Ni Mhurchu, C, Jebb, SA
et al. (2012) Patterns and trends of beverage consumption among children and adults in Great Britain, 1986–2009. Br J Nutr
Sanchez-Pimienta, TG, Batis, C, Lutter, CK
et al. (2016) Sugar-sweetened beverages are the main sources of added sugar intake in the Mexican population. J Nutr
146, issue 9, 1888S–1896S.
Popkin, BM (2010) Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle. Physiol Behav
Garriguet, D (2008) Consommation de boissons par les enfants et les adolescents. Rapports sur la Santé
Breinbauer, C & Maddaleno, M (2005) Youth: Choices and Change. Promoting Healthy Behaviors in Adolescents. PAHO Scientific and Technical Publication no. 594. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.
Baril, G, Paquette, M-C & Ouimet, A-M (2014)
Ados 12–14: les dimensions socioculturelles des pratiques alimentaires et d’activité physique des adolescents
. Québec, QC: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Gouvernement du Québec.
Flynn, MAT, McNeil, DA, Maloff, B
et al. (2006) Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: a synthesis of evidence with ‘best practice’ recommendations. Obes Rev
Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport (2007) Pour un virage santé à l’école. Politique-cadre pour une saine alimentation et un mode de vie physiquement actif. Québec, QC: MELS, Gouvernement du Québec.
Story, M, Neumark-Sztainer, D & French, S (2002) Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors. J Am Diet Assoc
102, 3 Suppl., S40–S51.
Taylor, JP, Evers, S & McKenna, M (2005) Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth. Can J Public Health
96, Suppl. 3, S20–S26.
Casey, L & Crumley, E (2004) Addressing Childhood Obesity: The Evidence for Action. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres, Paediatric Chairs of Canada, CIHR Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism and Diabetes.
Bandura, A (1997) Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing society. In Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies, pp. 1–45 [A Bandura, editor]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, M, Lynch, KT, Kass, AE
et al. (2014) Healthy weight regulation and eating disorder prevention in high school students: a universal and targeted web-based intervention. J Med Internet Res
Sallis, JF, Owen, N & Fisher, EB (2008) Ecological models of health behavior. In
Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, pp. 465–485 [K Glanz, BK Rimer and K Viswanath, editors]. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Baranowski, T, Lin, LS, Wetter, DW
et al. (1997) Theory as mediating variables: why aren’t community interventions working as desired?
7, Suppl., S89–S95.
Brug, J, Oenema, A & Ferreira, I (2005) Theory, evidence and intervention mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Fishbein, M & Yzer, MC (2003) Using theory to design effective health behavior interventions. Commun Theory
King, AC (2015) Theory’s role in shaping behavioral health research for population health. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Michie, S & Abraham, C (2004) Interventions to change health behaviours: evidence-based or evidence-inspired?
Rothman, AJ (2004) ‘Is there nothing more practical than a good theory?’: why innovations and advances in health behavior change will arise if interventions are used to test and refine theory. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Bandura, A (1977) Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev
Bandura, A (1977) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ajzen, I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process
Prochaska, JO & DiClemente, CC (1983) Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. J Consult Clin Psychol
Ryan, RM & Deci, EL (2000) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemp Educ Psychol
Michie, S, Johnston, M, Francis, J
et al. (2008) From theory to intervention: mapping theoretically derived behavioural determinants to behaviour change techniques. Appl Psychol Int Rev
Abraham, C & Michie, S (2008) A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychol
Cane, J, Richardson, M, Johnston, M
et al. (2015) From lists of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to structured hierarchies: comparison of two methods of developing a hierarchy of BCTs. Br J Health Psychol
Michie, S, Carey, RN, Johnston, M
et al. (2016) From theory-inspired to theory-based interventions: a protocol for developing and testing a methodology for linking behaviour change techniques to theoretical mechanisms of action. Ann Behav Med (Epublication ahead of print version).
Ali, F, Rehman, H, Babayan, Z
et al. (2015) Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: a systematic review of the current evidence. Postgrad Med
Forshee, RA, Anderson, PA & Storey, ML (2008) Sugar-sweetened beverages and body mass index in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr
Malik, VS, Pan, A, Willett, WC
et al. (2013) Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr
Trumbo, PR & Rivers, CR (2014) Systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of obesity. Nutr Rev
Keller, A & Bucher Della Torre, S (2015) Sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity among children and adolescents: a review of systematic literature reviews. Child Obes
Bucher Della Torre, S, Keller, A, Laure Depeyre, J
et al. (2016) Sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity risk in children and adolescents: a systematic analysis on how methodological quality may influence conclusions. J Acad Nutr Diet
Weed, DL, Althuis, MD & Mink, PJ (2011) Quality of reviews on sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr
Riordan, F, Ryan, K, Perry, IJ
et al. (2016) A systematic review of methods to assess intake of sugar-sweetened beverages among healthy European adults and children: a DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) study. Public Health Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
Levy, DT, Friend, KB & Wang, YC (2011) A review of the literature on policies directed at the youth consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Adv Nutr
2, issue 2, 182S–200S.
Powell, LM, Chriqui, JF, Khan, T
et al. (2013) Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes. Obes Rev
Cabrera Escobar, MA, Veerman, JL, Tollman, SM
et al. (2013) Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health
Avery, A, Bostock, L & McCullough, F (2015) A systematic review investigating interventions that can help reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children leading to changes in body fatness. J Hum Nutr Diet
Lane, H, Porter, K, Estabrooks, P
et al. (2016) A systematic review to assess sugar-sweetened beverage interventions for children and adolescents across the socioecological model. J Acad Nutr Diet
Tipton, JA (2015) Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake among students: school-based programs and policies that work. NASN Sch Nurse
Sharma, M (2006) School-based interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity. Obes Rev
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) The CDC Guide to Strategies for Reducing the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Atlanta, GA: CDC.
Armijo-Olivo, S, Stiles, CR, Hagen, NA
et al. (2012) Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool: methodological research. J Eval Clin Pract
Higgins, JPT & Green, S (2011) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2. http://www.cochrane-handbook.org (accessed March 2011).
Bauhoff, S (2014) The effect of school district nutrition policies on dietary intake and overweight: a synthetic control approach. Econ Hum Biol
Blum, JE, Davee, AM, Beaudoin, CM
et al. (2008) Reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda has a limited impact on beverage consumption patterns in Maine high school youth. J Nutr Educ Behav
Bogart, LM, Elliott, MN, Uyeda, K
et al. (2011) Preliminary healthy eating outcomes of SNaX, a pilot community-based intervention for adolescents. J Adolesc Health
Casazza, K (2006) A computer based approach to improve the dietary and physical activity patterns of a diverse group of adolescents. PhD Thesis, Florida International University.
Contento, IR, Koch, PA, Lee, H
et al. (2010) Adolescents demonstrate improvement in obesity risk behaviors after completion of choice, control & change, a curriculum addressing personal agency and autonomous motivation. J Am Diet Assoc
Cordeira, KL (2012) Effects of a health advocacy program to promote physical activity and nutrition behaviors among adolescents: an evaluation of the Young Leaders for Healthy Change Program. MPH Disseration, University of Texas School of Public Health.
Cradock, AL, McHugh, A, Mont-Ferguson, H
et al. (2011) Effect of school district policy change on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among high school students, Boston, Massachusetts, 2004–2006. Prev Chronic Dis
Cullen, KW, Watson, K & Zakeri, I (2008) Improvements in middle school student dietary intake after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy. Am J Public Health
Davis, JN, Ventura, EE, Alexander, KE
et al. (2007) Feasibility of a home-based versus classroom-based nutrition intervention to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes in Latino youth. Int J Pediatr Obes
Greece, JA (2011) Behavioral impact of a school-based healthy eating intervention for at-risk children. ScD Dissertation, Boston University.
Lao, LS (2011) Evaluation of a social networking based SNAP-Ed nutrition curriculum on behavior change. MS Disseration, University of Rhode Island.
Nanney, MS, Maclehose, R, Kubik, MY
et al. (2014) Recommended school policies are associated with student sugary drink and fruit and vegetable intake. Prev Med
Neumark-Sztainer, DR, Friend, SE, Flattum, CF
et al. (2010) New moves-preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls a group-randomized study. Am J Prev Med
Patel, AI, Bogart, LM, Elliott, MN
et al. (2011) Increasing the availability and consumption of drinking water in middle schools: a pilot study. Prev Chronic Dis
Pbert, L, Druker, S, Gapinski, MA
et al. (2013) A school nurse-delivered intervention for overweight and obese adolescents. J Sch Health
Smith, LH & Holloman, C (2014) Piloting ‘sodabriety’: a school-based intervention to impact sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in rural Appalachian high schools. J Sch Health
Teufel, NI & Ritenbaugh, CK (1998) Development of a primary prevention program: insight gained in the Zuni Diabetes Prevention Program. Clin Pediatr
Thiele, MC & Boushey, CJ (1989) Soft drink consumption among Yup’ik Eskimo teenagers. Alaska Med
Whittemore, R, Jeon, S & Grey, M (2013) An internet obesity prevention program for adolescents. J Adolesc Health
Winett, RA, Roodman, AA, Winett, SG
et al. (1999) The effects of the Eat4Life Internet-based health behavior program on the nutrition and activity practices of high school girls. J Gender Culture Health
Woodward-Lopez, G, Gosliner, W, Samuels, SE
et al. (2010) Lessons learned from evaluations of California’s statewide school nutrition standards. Am J Public Health
Wordell, D, Daratha, K, Mandal, B
et al. (2012) Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices. J Acad Nutr Diet
Nanney, MS, MacLehose, RF, Kubik, MY
et al. (2016) School obesity prevention policies and practices in Minnesota and student outcomes: a longitudinal cohort study. Am J Prev Med
Lo, E, Coles, R, Humbert, ML
et al. (2008) Beverage intake improvement by high school students in Saskatchewan, Canada. Nutr Res
Malbon, CA (2012) Examining the influence of an online health behaviour support tool for high school aged youth. MSc Dissertation, University of Victoria (Canada).
McGoldrick, KA (2006) Sweetened beverage consumption of Peel adolescents: nutritional correlates and influence of the school and neighbourhood food environments, MSc Dissertation, University of Waterloo.
Collins, CE, Dewar, DL, Schumacher, TL
et al. (2014) 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial. Appetite
Smith, JJ, Morgan, PJ, Plotnikoff, RC
et al. (2014) Smart-phone obesity prevention trial for adolescent boys in low-income communities: the ATLAS RCT. Pediatrics
Dubuy, V, De Cocker, K, De Bourdeaudhuij, I
et al. (2014) Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest–posttest design. BMC Public Health
Haerens, L, Deforche, B, Maes, L
et al. (2006) Evaluation of a 2-year physical activity and healthy eating intervention in middle school children. Health Educ Res
da Silva Vargas, IC, Sichieri, R, Sandre-Pereira, G
et al. (2011) Evaluation of an obesity prevention program in adolescents of public schools. Rev Saude Publica
Wing, YK, Chan, NY, Yu, MWM
et al. (2015) A school-based sleep education program for adolescents: a cluster randomized trial. Pediatrics
Singhal, N, Misra, A, Shah, P
et al. (2010) Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India. Eur J Clin Nutr
Bae, SG, Kim, JY, Kim, KY
et al. (2012) Changes in dietary behavior among adolescents and their association with government nutrition policies in Korea, 2005–2009. J Prev Med Public Health
Yildirim, M, Singh, AS, te Velde, SJ
et al. (2013) Mediators of longitudinal changes in measures of adiposity in teenagers using parallel process latent growth modeling. Obesity (Silver Spring)
Mazarello Paes, V, Hesketh, K, O’Malley, C
et al. (2015) Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review. Obes Rev
Nielsen, SJ & Popkin, BM (2004) Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 2001. Am J Prev Med
Grummon, AH, Oliva, A, Hampton, KE
et al. (2015) Association between student purchases of beverages during the school commute and in-school consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, San Francisco Bay area, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis
Zheng, M, Rangan, A, Olsen, NJ
et al. (2015) Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence. Nutrition
Veugelers, PJ & Fitzgerald, AL (2005) Effectiveness of school programs in preventing childhood obesity: a multilevel comparison. Am J Public Health
Flodmark, CE, Marcus, C & Britton, M (2006) Interventions to prevent obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Int J Obes (Lond)
Glanz, K & Bishop, DB (2010) The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions. Annu Rev Public Health
Bartholomew, LK & Mullen, PD (2011) Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions. J Public Health Dent
71, Suppl. 1, S20–S33.
Webb, TL, Joseph, J, Yardley, L
et al. (2010) Using the internet to promote health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. J Med Internet Res
Prestwich, A, Sniehotta, FF, Whittington, C
et al. (2014) Does theory influence the effectiveness of health behavior interventions? Meta-analysis. Health Psychol
Bandura, A (2004) Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Educ Behav
Bélanger-Gravel, A, Godin, G, Vézina-Im, LA
et al. (2011) The effect of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals: a systematic review. Obes Rev
Harkin, B, Webb, TL, Chang, BPI
et al. (2016) Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychol Bull
Michie, S, Abraham, C, Whittington, C
et al. (2009) Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: a meta-regression. Health Psychol
Burke, LE, Wang, J & Sevick, MA (2011) Self-monitoring in weight loss: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Diet Assoc
Pearson, ES (2012) Goal setting as a health behavior change strategy in overweight and obese adults: a systematic literature review examining intervention components. Patient Educ Couns
Miller, CK & Bauman, J (2014) Goal setting: an integral component of effective diabetes care. Curr Diab Rep
Waters, E, de Silva-Sanigorski, A, Hall, BJ
et al. (2011) Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Plaete, J, De Bourdeaudhuij, I, Verloigne, M
et al. (2016) The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study. PeerJ
Dombrowski, SU, Endevelt, R, Steinberg, DM
et al. (2016) Do more specific plans help you lose weight? Examining the relationship between plan specificity, weight loss goals, and plan content in the context of a weight management programme. Br J Health Psychol
Harris, JL & Munsell, CR (2015) Energy drinks and adolescents: what’s the harm?
Richards, G & Smith, AP (2016) A review of energy drinks and mental health, with a focus on stress, anxiety, and depression. J Caffeine Res
Lippi, G, Cervellin, G & Sanchis-Gomar, F (2016) Energy drinks and myocardial ischemia: a review of case reports. Cardiovasc Toxicol
Committee on Nutrition & the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness (2011) Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate?
Taber, DR, Chriqui, JF, Vuillaume, R
et al. (2015) The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
12, Suppl. 1, S7.
Valentine, JC & Thompson, SG (2013) Issues relating to confounding and meta-analysis when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. Res Synth Methods
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J
et al. (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med
151, 264–269, W64.