1United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination, Sub-committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN). Fourth Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Geneva: ACC/SCN in collaboration with International Food Policy Research Institute, 2000.
2Lien N, Lytle LA, Klepp KI. Stability in consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugary foods in a cohort from age 14 to age 21. Preventive Medicine 2001; 33(3): 217–26.
3Engeland A, Bjørge T, Selmer RM, Tverdahl A. Height and body mass index in relation to total mortality. Epidemiology 2003; 14(3): 293–9.
4Samuelson G. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe. An overview of current studies in the Nordic countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 54(Suppl. 1): S21–8.
5Rolland-Cachera MF, Bellisle F, Deheeger M. Nutritional status and food intake in adolescents living in Western Europe. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 54(Suppl. 1): S41–6.
6Lowry R, Wechsler H, Galuska DA, Fulton JE, Kann L. Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. Journal of School Health 2002; 72(10): 413–21.
7Steinbeck KS. The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood: a review and an opinion. Obesity Reviews 2001; 2(2): 117–30.
8Kaur H, Choi WS, Mayo MS, Harris KJ. Duration of television watching is associated with increased body mass index. Journal of Pediatrics 2003; 143(4): 506–11.
9Gordon-Larsen P, McMurray RG, Popkin BM. Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Pediatrics 1999; 135(3): 301–6.
10Andersen LF, Nes M, Sandstad B, Bjorneboe GE, Drevon CA. Dietary intake among Norwegian adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; 49(8): 555–64.
11World Health Organization (WHO). Health Behaviour among Young People. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents Series, Report No. 1. Geneva: WHO, 2000.
12Bhopal R, Unwin N, White M, Yallop J, Walker L, Alberti KG, et al. Heterogeneity of coronary heart disease risk factors in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and European origin populations: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 1999; 319(7204): 215–20.
13Kimm SY, Barton BA, Obarzanek E, McMahon RP, Sabry ZI, Waclawiw MA, et al. Racial divergence in adiposity during adolescence: The NHLBI Growth and Health Study. Pediatrics 2001; 107(3): E34.
14Bhopal R. Is research into ethnicity and health racist, unsound, or important science? British Medical Journal 1997; 314(7096): 1751–6.
15Lie B. Innvandring og innvandrere 2002. Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå, 2002.
16Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Guo SS, Wei R, et al. CDC growth charts: United States. Advance Data 2000; (314): 1–27.
17Rognerud MA, Kruger O, Gjertsen F, Thelle DS. Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway. European Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 14(5): 457–63.
18Bhopal RS. Concepts of Epidemiology: An Integrated Introduction to the Ideas, Theories, Principles, and Methods of Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
19Strauss RS. Comparison of measured and self-reported weight and height in a cross-sectional sample of young adolescents. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1999; 23(8): 904–8.
20Jebb SA, Lambert J. Overweight and obesity in European children and adolescents. European Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 159(Suppl. 1) S2–4.
21Winkleby MA, Robinson TN, Sundquist J, Kraemer HC. Ethnic variation in cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and young adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 281(11): 1006–13.
22Sturm R, Wells KB. Does obesity contribute as much to morbidity as poverty or smoking? Public Health 2001; 115(3): 229–35.
23World Health Organzation (WHO). Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva, 3–5 June 1997. Geneva: WHO, 1998; 1–276.
24Bellizzi MC, Dietz WH. Workshop on childhood obesity: summary of the discussion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70(1): 173S–5S.
25Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. New England Journal of Medicine 1992; 327(19): 1350–5.
26Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal 2000; 320(7244): 1240–3.
27Guo SS, Wu W, Chumlea WC, Roche AF. Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76(3): 653–8.
28Klasson-Heggebo L, Andersen K. Gender and age differences in relation to the recommendations of physical activity among Norwegian children and youth. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2003; 13(5): 293–8.
29Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Winter PD, Osmond C, Barker DJ. Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal 1999; 318(7181): 427–31.
30Lytle LA, Himes JH, Feldman H, Zive M, Dwyer J, Hoelscher D, et al. Nutrient intake over time in a multi-ethnic sample of youth. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5(2): 319–28.
31Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Field AE, Gillman MW, Frazier AL, Camargo CA Jr, et al. Activity, dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls. Pediatrics 2000; 105(4): E56.
32Shetty PS, McPherson K, eds. Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Disease: Lessons from Contrasting Worlds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997; 59–75.
33Venkaiah K, Damayanti K, Nayak MU, Vijayaraghavan K. Diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 56(11): 1119–25.
34Macbeth H, Shetty PS, eds. Health and Ethnicity. London: Taylor & Francis, 2001; 41–58.
35Saxena S, Majeed A, Jones M. Socioeconomic differences in childhood consultation rates in general practice in England and Wales: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 1999; 318(7184): 642–6.
36De Vito E, La Torre G, Langiano E, Berardi D, Ricciardi G. Overweight and obesity among secondary school children in central Italy. European Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 15(7): 649–54.
37Garaulet M, Martinez A, Victoria F, Perez-Llamas F, Ortega RM, Zamora S. Difference in dietary intake and activity level between normal-weight and overweight or obese adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000; 30(3): 253–8.
38Vander Wal JS, Thelen MH. Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children. Addictive Behaviors 2000; 25(5): 775–8.
39Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt M. Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998; 279(12): 938–42.
40Pratt M, Macera CA, Blanton C. Levels of physical activity and inactivity in children and adults in the United States: current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999; 31(Suppl. 11): S526–33.