Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Excessive meat consumption in Brazil: diet quality and environmental impacts

  • Aline Martins de Carvalho (a1), Chester Luiz Galvão César (a2), Regina Mara Fisberg (a1) and Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni (a1)

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate red and processed meat intake, and the impact meat consumption has on diet quality and the environment.

Design

A large cross-sectional health survey performed in São Paulo, Brazil.

Setting

Diet was assessed by two 24 h dietary recalls. Usual intakes were calculated using the Multiple Source Method. The World Cancer Research Fund recommendation of an average of 71·4 g/d was used as the cut-off point to estimate excessive red and processed meat consumption. To investigate the relationship between meat consumption and diet quality we used the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised. The environmental impact was analysed according to estimates of CO2 equivalent emissions from meat consumption.

Subjects

Brazilians (n 1677) aged 19 years and older were studied.

Results

The mean red and processed meat intake was 138 g/d for men and 81 g/d for women. About 81 % of men and 58 % of women consumed more meat than recommended. Diet quality was inversely associated with excessive meat intake in men. In Brazil alone, greenhouse gas emissions from meat consumption, in 2003, were estimated at approximately 18 071 988 tonnes of CO2 equivalents, representing about 4 % of the total CO2 emitted by agriculture.

Conclusions

The excessive meat intake, associated with poorer diet quality observed, support initiatives and policies advising to reduce red and processed meat intake to within the recommended amounts, as part of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Excessive meat consumption in Brazil: diet quality and environmental impacts
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Excessive meat consumption in Brazil: diet quality and environmental impacts
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Excessive meat consumption in Brazil: diet quality and environmental impacts
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email marchioni@usp.br

References

Hide All
1.Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde, Coordenação-Geral da Política de Alimentação e Nutrição (2006) Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira: Promovendo a Alimentação Saudável. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde.
2.McAfee, AJ, McSorley, EM, Cuskelly, GJet al. (2010) Red meat consumption: an overview of the risks and benefits. Meat Sci 84, 113.
3.World Cancer Research Fund & American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR.
4.Daniel, CR, Cross, AJ, Koebnick, Cet al. (2011) Trends in meat consumption in the USA. Public Health Nutr 14, 575583.
5.Micha, R, Wallace, SK & Mozaffarian, D (2010) Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 121, 22712283.
6.Cosgrove, M, Flynn, A & Kiely, M (2005) Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality. Br J Nutr 93, 933942.
7.Hodgson, JM, Ward, NC, Burke, Vet al. (2007) Increased lean red meat intake does not elevate markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. J Nutr 137, 294303.
8.Vergnaud, AC, Norat, T, Romaguera, Det al. (2010) Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 398407.
9.Okubo, H, Sasaki, S, Murakami, Ket al. (2011) The ratio of fish to meat in the diet is positively associated with favorable intake of food groups and nutrients among young Japanese women. Nutr Res 31, 169177.
10.Steinfeld, H, Gerber, P, Wassenaar, Tet al. (2006) Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Rome: FAO.
11.Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (2009) Inventário Brasileiro das Emissões e Remoções Antrópicas de Gases de Efeito Estufa. Informações Gerais e Valores Preliminare. http://www.mct.gov.br/upd_blob/0207/207624.pdf (accessed August 2011).
12.Inquéritos de Saúde (2005) Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo. ISA-Capital 2003. http://hygeia.fsp.usp.br/isa-sp/index_arquivos/Page3157.htm (accessed August 2011).
13.Castro, MA, Barros, RR, Bueno, MBet al. (2009) Trans fatty acids intake among the population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 43, 991997.
14.Thompson, FE & Byers, T (1994) Dietary assessment resource manual. J Nutr 124, 11 Suppl., 2245S2317S.
15.Pinheiro, ABV, de Lacerda EM, A, Benzecry, EHet al. (2000) Tabela para Avaliação de Consumo Alimentar em Medidas Caseiras, 4th ed. São Paulo: Atheneu.
16.Fisberg, RM & Villar, BS (2002) Manual de Receitas e Medidas Caseiras para Cálculo de Inquéritos Alimentares: Manual Elaborado para Auxiliar o Processamento de Inquéritos Alimentares. São Paulo: Signus.
17.Haubrock, J, Nöthlings, U, Volatier, JLet al. (2011) Estimating usual food intake distributions by using the multiple source method in the EPIC-Potsdam Calibration Study. J Nutr 141, 914920.
18.Harttig, U, Haubrock, J, Knüppel, Set al. (2011) The MSM program: web-based statistics package for estimating usual dietary intake using the Multiple Source Method. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, Suppl. 1, S87S91.
19.Fisberg, RM, Morimoto, JM, Slater, Bet al. (2006) Dietary quality and associated factors among adults living in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 20672072.
20.Previdelli, AN, Lipi, M, Castro, MLet al. (2010) Dietary quality and associated factors among factory workers in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 786790.
21.Previdelli, AN, Andrade, SC, Pires, MMet al. (2011) Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado (IQD-R): desenvolvimento para população brasileira. Rev Saude Publica 45, 794798.
22.Guenther, PM, Reedy, J, Krebs-Smith, SMet al. (2007) Development and Evaluation of the Healthy Eating Index-2005: Technical Report. Alexandria, VA: Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, US Department of Agriculture; available at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/HealthyEatingIndex.htm
23.Fundação Seade (2008) Anuário Estatístico do Estado de São Paulo 2003. http://www.seade.gov.br/produtos/anuario/mostra_tabela.php?anos=2003&tema=dem&tabpesq=dem2003_02&tabela=null (accessed August 2011).
24.Cedeberg, C, Persson, UM, Neovius, Ket al. (2011) Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef. Environ Sci Technol 45, 17731779.
25.Rizzo, L, Moser, RP, Waldron, Wet al. (2008) Analytic Methods to Examine Changes Across Years Using HINTS 2003 and 2005 Data. NIH Publication no. 08-6435. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health and Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute.
26.Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2010) Indicadores IBGE: Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008–2009: Antropometria e Estado Nutricional de Crianças, Adolescentes e Adultos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.
27.Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2006) Indicadores IBGE: Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2002–2003: Antropometria e Estado Nutricional de Crianças, Adolescentes e Adultos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.
28.McMichael, A, Powles, JW, Butler, CDet al. (2007) Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health. Lancet 370, 12531263.
29.Secretaria Municipal do Verde e do Meio Ambiente (2005) Inventário de Emissão de Gases de Efeito Estufa do Município de São Paulo. http://ww2.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/arquivos/secretarias/meio_ambiente/Sintesedoinventario.pdf (accessed August 2011).
30.Carlsson-Kanyama, A & González, AD (2009) Potencial contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change. Am J Clin Nutr 89, issue 5, 1704S1709S.
31.Bigio, RS, Verly Junior, E, Castro, MAet al. (2011) Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents using quantile regression. Rev Saude Publica 45, 448456.
32.Bazzano, LA (2005) Dietary Intake of Fruit and Vegetable and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases. Geneva: WHO.
33.Swatland, HJ (2010) Meat products and consumption culture in the West. Meat Sci 86, 8085.
34.Beaton, GH, Milner, J, Corey, Pet al. (1979) Sources of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: implications for nutrition study design and interpretation. Am J Clin Nutr 32, 25462559.
35.Jahns, L, Arab, L, Carriquiry, Aet al. (2005) The use of external within-person variance estimates to adjust nutrient intake distributions over time and across populations. Public Health Nutr 8, 6976.

Keywords

Excessive meat consumption in Brazil: diet quality and environmental impacts

  • Aline Martins de Carvalho (a1), Chester Luiz Galvão César (a2), Regina Mara Fisberg (a1) and Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed