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Foods contributing to sodium intake and urinary sodium excretion in a group of Australian women

  • Jennifer B Keogh (a1), Kylie Lange (a2), Rebecca Hogarth (a3) (a4) and Peter M Clifton (a2)

To identify food sources of Na in a group of community-dwelling women in Adelaide, South Australia. A secondary aim was to measure Na excretion in this group.




Community setting, Adelaide, South Australia.


Seventy healthy women (mean age 48·6 (sd 8·1) years, mean BMI 28·6 (sd 6·3) kg/m2) living in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia and participating in a validation study of an FFQ. Dietary intake was derived from two 4 d weighed food records. Foods from the 4 d weighed food records were grouped according to foods or food groups to establish contributors to Na intake. Na excretion was measured in two 24 h urine samples. Completeness of urine collections was verified using creatinine excretion.


Bread alone contributed 19·0 % of Na intake, with an overall contribution from the breads and cereals group of 32·5 %. Meat products contributed 14·4 % of intake, the dairy and eggs group (excluding cheese) 9·6 % and combination dishes (e.g. pizza, quiche, sandwiches and stir fry dishes) 8·4 %. Na excretion was 126 (sd 42) mmol/d, i.e. approximately 7·6 (sd 2.5) g salt/d. Seventy per cent of participants (n 48) had Na excretion ≥100 mmol/d (146 (sd 34) mmol/d).


Effective Na reduction could be achieved by reducing the amount in staple foods such as bread and meat products.

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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
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