Skip to main content
×
Home

Is participation in food and income assistance programmes associated with obesity in California adults? Results from a state-wide survey

  • Cindy W Leung (a1) (a2) and Eduardo Villamor (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

Public assistance programmes may increase risk of obesity among adults. The current study assessed whether participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; formerly the Food Stamp Program), Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or California Work Opportunities and Responsibilities to Kids (CalWorks) was associated with obesity, independent of socio-economic status and food insecurity.

Design

A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 Adult California Health Interview Survey. Outcome measures included BMI and obesity. Distribution of BMI and prevalence of obesity were compared by participation in each programme, using weighted linear and binomial regression models in which BMI or obesity was the outcome, respectively, and programme participation was the predictor.

Setting

A population survey of various health measures.

Subjects

Non-institutionalized adults (n 7741) whose household income was ≤130 % of the federal poverty level.

Results

The prevalence of obesity was 27·4 %. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, food insecurity and participation in other programmes, the prevalence of obesity was 30 % higher in SNAP participants (95 % CI 6 %, 59 %; P = 0·01) than in non-participants. This association was more pronounced among men than women. SSI participation was related to an adjusted 50 % higher prevalence of obesity (95 % CI 27 %, 77 %; P < 0·0001) compared with no participation. SNAP and SSI participants also reported higher soda consumption than non-participants of any programme. CalWorks participation was not associated with obesity after multivariable adjustment.

Conclusions

Participation in SNAP or SSI was associated with obesity independent of food insecurity or socio-economic status. The suggestion that these associations may be mediated by dietary quality warrants further investigation among low-income populations.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Is participation in food and income assistance programmes associated with obesity in California adults? Results from a state-wide survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Is participation in food and income assistance programmes associated with obesity in California adults? Results from a state-wide survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Is participation in food and income assistance programmes associated with obesity in California adults? Results from a state-wide survey
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email cleung@hsph.harvard.edu
References
Hide All
1.California Department of Social Services (2007) Eligibility and Issuance Requirements, Food Stamp Program. http://www.dss.cahwnet.gov/foodstamps/PG841.htm (accessed April 2009).
2.Social Security Administration (2009) Supplemental Security Income (SSI) In California. http://www.ssa.gov/pubs/11125.html (accessed April 2009).
3.California Department of Social Services (2007) California Work Opportunities and Responsibilities to Kids (CalWORKS). http://www.ladpss.org/dpss/calworks/eligibility.cfm (accessed April 2009).
4.US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service (2009) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Frequently Asked Questions. http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/faqs.htm (accessed April 2009).
5.Ver Ploeg M, Mancino L, Lin BH et al. (2007) The vanishing weight gap: trends in obesity among adult food stamp participants (US) (1976–2002). Econ Hum Biol 5, 2036.
6.Baum C (2007) The Effects of Food Stamps on Obesity. Contractor and Cooperator Report. Murfreesboro, TN: Middle Tennessee State University.
7.Chen Z, Yen ST & Eastwood DB (2005) Effects of food stamp participation on body weight and obesity. Am J Agric Econ 87, 11671173.
8.Dinour LM, Bergen D & Yeh MC (2007) The food insecurity–obesity paradox: a review of the literature and the role food stamps may play. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 19521961.
9.Gibson D (2003) Food stamp program participation is positively related to obesity in low income women. J Nutr 133, 22252231.
10.Webb AL, Schiff A, Currivan D et al. (2008) Food Stamp Program participation but not food insecurity is associated with higher adult BMI in Massachusetts residents living in low-income neighbourhoods. Public Health Nutr 11, 12481255.
11.Zagorsky JL & Smith PK (2009) Does the US Food Stamp Program contribute to adult weight gain? Econ Hum Biol 7, 246258.
12.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008) Self-reported concern about food security associated with obesity – Washington, 1995–1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52, 840842.
13.Hanson KL, Sobal J & Frongillo EA (2007) Gender and marital status clarify associations between food insecurity and body weight. J Nutr 137, 14601465.
14.Holben DH & Pheley AM (2006) Diabetes risk and obesity in food-insecure households in rural Appalachian Ohio. Prev Chronic Dis 3, A82.
15.Martin KS & Ferris AM (2007) Food insecurity and gender are risk factors for obesity. J Nutr Educ Behav 39, 3136.
16.Tayie FA & Zizza CA (2009) Height differences and the associations between food insecurity, percentage body fat and BMI among men and women. Public Health Nutr 12, 18551861.
17.Townsend MS, Peerson J, Love B et al. (2001) Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women. J Nutr 131, 17381745.
18.Wilde PE & Peterman JN (2006) Individual weight change is associated with household food security status. J Nutr 136, 13951400.
19.California Health Interview Survey (2009) CHIS 2007 Methodology Series: Report 4 – Response Rates. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.
20.California Health Interview Survey (2007) Weighting and Estimation of Variance in the CHIS Public Use Files. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.
21.California Health Interview Survey (2009) CHIS 2007 Methodology Series: Report 2 – Data Collection Methods. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.
22.US Department of Agriculture (2008) US Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form. Washington, DC: USDA.
23.Jones SJ & Frongillo EA (2006) The modifying effects of Food Stamp Program participation on the relation between food insecurity and weight change in women. J Nutr 136, 10911094.
24.Hellstrom PM, Geliebter A, Naslund E et al. (2004) Peripheral and central signals in the control of eating in normal, obese and binge-eating human subjects. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 1, S47S57.
25.Adams EJ, Grummer-Strawn L & Chavez G (2003) Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of obesity in California women. J Nutr 133, 10701074.
26.Drewnowski A & Specter SE (2004) Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 616.
27.Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA et al. (2005) Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and the spatial accessibility of supermarkets in metropolitan Detroit. Am J Public Health 95, 660667.
28.Macdonald L, Cummins S & Macintyre S (2007) Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? Appetite 49, 251254.
29.Pearce J, Blakely T, Witten K et al. (2007) Neighborhood deprivation and access to fast-food retailing: a national study. Am J Prev Med 32, 375382.
30.Cason KL, Cox RH, Burney JL et al. (2002) Do food stamps without education improve the nutrient intake of recipients? Top Clin Nutr 17, 7482.
31.Hampl JS & Sass S (2001) Focus groups indicate that vegetable and fruit consumption by food stamp-eligible Hispanics is affected by children and unfamiliarity with non-traditional foods. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 685687.
32.Wiig K & Smith C (2009) The art of grocery shopping on a food stamp budget: factors influencing the food choices of low-income women as they try to make ends meet. Public Health Nutr 12, 17261734.
33.Betz NE, Mintz L & Speakmon G (1994) Gender differences in the accuracy of self-reported weight. Sex Roles 30, 543552.
34.Oliveira A, Ramos E, Lopes C et al. (2009) Self-reporting weight and height: misclassification effect on the risk estimates for acute myocardial infarction. Eur J Public Health 19, 548553.
35.McAdams MA, Van Dam RM & Hu FB (2007) Comparison of self-reported and measured BMI as correlates of disease markers in US adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 188196.
36.Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL et al. (2010) Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA 303, 235241.
37.National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promotion (2009) Weight classification by Body Mass Index (BMI). Overweight and Obesity (BMI) – 2007, Prevalence and Trends Data. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.htmlstate (accessed March 2010).
38.Hu FB (editor) (2008) Measures of adiposity and body composition. In Obesity Epidemiology, pp. 5383. New York: Oxford University Press.
39.Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Shiva N et al. (2005) General obesity and central adiposity in a representative sample of Tehranian adults: prevalence and determinants. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75, 297304.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 77
Total number of PDF views: 295 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1110 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.