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Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to dietary salt intake among adults in North India

  • Vandana Garg (a1), Roopa Shivashankar (a1), Dimple Kondal (a2), Shreeparna Ghosh (a3), Shweta Khandelwal (a2), Ruby Gupta (a2), Anand Krishnan (a4), Ritvik Amarchand (a4), Dorairaj Prabhakaran (a1) (a2) and Sailesh Mohan (a1) (a2)...



To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to salt consumption among adults in rural and urban North India.


Data for the study were obtained from a community-based cross-sectional survey using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and 24 h urine samples.


Data collection was conducted during March–October 2012 in rural Haryana and urban Delhi in North India.


Adults (n 1635) aged ≥20 years (701 in rural Haryana; 934 in urban Delhi).


Twenty-four per cent of rural and 40·5 % of urban participants knew that a high-salt diet causes high blood pressure. Nearly one-fifth of both rural and urban participants knew that there should be a maximum daily limit for consumption of salt. In rural and urban areas, 46·6 and 45·1 %, respectively, perceived it important to reduce the salt content of their diet; however, only 3·7 and 10·2 %, respectively, reported taking some actions. Participants reported they were consuming ‘too little salt’, ‘just the right amount of salt’ or ‘too much salt’, but their corresponding mean (95 % CI) actual salt consumption (g/d; as measured by 24 h urinary Na excretion) was higher, especially among rural participants (rural: 9·2 (8·13, 10·22), 8·5 (8·19, 8·77) or 8·4 (7·72, 8·99); urban: 5·6 (4·67, 6·57), 5·7 (5·32, 6·01) or 4·6 (4·10, 5·14), respectively).


Knowledge about the deleterious health impact of excess salt consumption is low in this population. Tailored public education for salt reduction is warranted with a particular focus on rural residents.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email


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Public Health Nutrition
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