1.Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
2.Dawson-Hughes B (1998) Vitamin D and calcium: recommended intake for bone health. Osteoporos Int 8, Suppl. 2, S30–S34.
3.Society for Information on Health and Nutrition (2006) The National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 2003. Tokyo: Daiichi Shuppan.
4.Fujita T (1994) Osteoporosis in Japan: factors contributing to the low incidence of hip fracture. Adv Nutr Res 9, 89–99.
5.Garnero P (2000) Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk. Osteoporos Int 11, Suppl. 6, S55–S65.
6.Heaney RP (2003) Is the paradigm shifting? Bone 33, 457–465.
7.Eastell R, Mallinak N, Weiss S, Ettinger M, Pettinger M, Cain D, Fressland K & Chesnut C III (2000) Biological variability of serum and urinary N-telopeptides of type I collagen in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 15, 594–598.
8.Chaki O, Yoshikata I, Kikuchi R, Nakayama M, Uchiyama Y, Hirahara F & Gorai I (2000) The predictive value of biochemical markers of bone turnover for bone mineral density in postmenopausal Japanese women. J Bone Miner Res 15, 1537–1544.
9.Delmas PD, Eastell R, Garnero P, Seibel MJ & Stepan J; Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (2000) The use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 11, Suppl. 6, S2–S17.
10.Nakamura K, Tsugawa N, Saito T et al. (2008) Vitamin D status, bone mass, and bone metabolism in home-dwelling postmenopausal Japanese women: Yokogoshi Study. Bone 42, 271–277.
11.Uenishi K, Ishida H & Nakamura K (2008) Development of a simple food frequency questionnaire to estimate intakes of calcium and other nutrients for the prevention and management of osteoporosis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 54, 25–29.
12.Machado ABC, Hannon R & Eastell R (1999) Monitoring alendronate therapy for osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 14, 602–608.
13.Nakamura K, Hori Y, Nashimoto M, Okuda Y, Miyazaki H, Kasai Y & Yamamoto M (2004) Dietary calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and protein, and bone metabolism in elderly Japanese women: a pilot study using the duplicate portion sampling method. Nutrition 20, 340–345.
14.Shapses SA, Robins SP, Schwartz EI & Chowdhury H (1995) Short-term changes in calcium but not protein intake alter the rate of bone resorption in healthy subjects as assessed by urinary pyridinium cross-link excretion. J Nutr 125, 2814–2821.
15.Scopacasa F, Horowitz M, Wishart JM, Need AG, Morris HA, Wittert G & Nordin BE (1998) Calcium supplementation suppresses bone resorption in early postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 62, 8–11.
16.Fardellone P, Brazier M, Kamel S, Gueris J, Graulet AM, Lienard J & Sebert JL (1998) Biochemical effects of calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women: influence of dietary calcium intake. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 1273–1278.
17.Riggs BL, O’Fallon WM, Muhs J, O’Connor MK, Kumar R & Melton LJ III (1998) Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on serum parathyroid hormone level, bone turnover, and bone loss in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 13, 168–174.
18.Nakamura K, Kurahashi N, Ishihara J, Inoue M & Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study Group (2009) Calcium intake and the 10-year incidence of self-reported vertebral fractures in women and men: the Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study. Br J Nutr 101, 285–294.
19.Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Japan (2004) Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005. Tokyo: Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Japan.
20.Fujita T (1994) Osteoporosis in Japan: factors contributing to the low incidence of hip fracture. Adv Nutr Res 9, 89–99.
21.Nakamura K, Saito T, Nishiwaki T, Ueno K, Nashimoto M, Okuda Y, Tsuchiya Y, Oshiki R, Muto K & Yamamoto M (2006) Correlations between bone mineral density and demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical parameters in community dwelling Japanese women 69 years of age and over. Osteoporos Int 17, 1202–1207.
22.Ravn P, Cizza G, Bjarnason NH, Thompson D, Daley M, Wasnich RD, McClung M, Hosking D, Yates AJ & Christiansen C (1999) Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group. J Bone Miner Res 14, 1622–1627.
23.Rogers A, Hannon RA & Eastell R (2000) Biochemical markers as predictors of rates of bone loss after menopause. J Bone Miner Res 15, 1398–1404.
24.Papakitsou EF, Margioris AN, Dretakis KE, Trovas G, Zoras U, Lyritis G, Dretakis EK & Stergiopoulos K (2004) Body mass index (BMI) and parameters of bone formation and resorption in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 47, 185–193.
25.Dargent-Molina P, Poitiers F & Breart G; EPIDOS Group (2000) In elderly women weight is the best predictor of a very low bone mineral density: evidence from the EPIDOS study. Osteoporos Int 11, 881–888.
26.Ooms ME, Lips P, Van Lingen A & Valkenburg HA (1993) Determinants of bone mineral density and risk factors for osteoporosis in healthy elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 8, 669–675.
27.Adami S, Gatti D, Viapiana O, Fiore CE, Nuti R, Luisetto G, Ponte M & Rossini M; BONTURNO Study Group (2008) Physical activity and bone turnover markers: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study. Calcif Tissue Int 83, 388–392.