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    Fabio, Mary 2014. Nutrition for Refugee Children: Risks, Screening, and Treatment. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, Vol. 44, Issue. 7, p. 188.


    Zamora, Gerardo and De-Regil, Luz Maria 2014. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1312, Issue. 1, p. 40.


    Das, Jai K Salam, Rehana A Kumar, Rohail and Bhutta, Zulfiqar A 2013. Micronutrient fortification of food and its impact on woman and child health: a systematic review. Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2, Issue. 1,


    Varea, Ana Malpeli, Agustina Disalvo, Liliana Apezteguía, María Falivene, Mariana Ferrari, Guillermina Pereyras, Silvia Carmuega, Estéban Etchegoyen, Graciela Vojkovic, María and González, Horacio F. 2012. Evaluation of the Impact of a Food Program on the Micronutrient Nutritional Status of Argentinean Lactating Mothers. Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 150, Issue. 1-3, p. 103.


    Young, Helen Sadler, Kate and Borrel, Annalies 2012. Present Knowledge in Nutrition.


    Hughes, Roger 2008. In this issue. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 11, Issue. 07,


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Maize meal fortification is associated with improved vitamin A and iron status in adolescents and reduced childhood anaemia in a food aid-dependent refugee population

  • Andrew Seal (a1), Emmanuel Kafwembe (a2), Ismail AR Kassim (a1), Mei Hong (a1), Annie Wesley (a3), John Wood (a4), Fathia Abdalla (a5) and Tina van den Briel (a4)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980007001486
  • Published online: 01 July 2008
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To assess changes in the Fe and vitamin A status of the population of Nangweshi refugee camp associated with the introduction of maize meal fortification.

Design

Pre- and post-intervention study using a longitudinal cohort.

Setting

Nangweshi refugee camp, Zambia.

Subjects

Two hundred and twelve adolescents (10–19 years), 157 children (6–59 months) and 118 women (20–49 years) were selected at random by household survey in July 2003 and followed up after 12 months.

Results

Maize grain was milled and fortified in two custom-designed mills installed at a central location in the camp and a daily ration of 400 g per person was distributed twice monthly to households as part of the routine food aid ration. During the intervention period mean Hb increased in children (0·87 g/dl; P < 0·001) and adolescents (0·24 g/dl; P = 0·043) but did not increase in women. Anaemia decreased in children by 23·4 % (P < 0·001) but there was no significant change in adolescents or women. Serum transferrin receptor (log10-transformed) decreased by −0·082 μg/ml (P = 0·036) indicating an improvement in the Fe status of adolescents but there was no significant decrease in the prevalence of deficiency (−8·5 %; P = 0·079). In adolescents, serum retinol increased by 0·16 μmol/l (P < 0·001) and vitamin A deficiency decreased by 26·1 % (P < 0·001).

Conclusions

The introduction of fortified maize meal led to a decrease in anaemia in children and a decrease in vitamin A deficiency in adolescents. Centralised, camp-level milling and fortification of maize meal is a feasible and pertinent intervention in food aid operations.

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*Email a.seal@ich.ucl.ac.uk
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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
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