This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1EB Schmidt and J. Dyerberg Omega-3 fatty acids: current status in cardiovascular medicine. Drugs 1994; 47: 405–24.
4F Soriguer , S Serns E Valverde , Lipid, protein, and calorie content of different Atlantic and Mediterranean fish, shellfish, and molluscs commonly eaten in the south of Spain. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 13: 451–63.
5JH Rapp , WE Connor , DS Lin JM Porter . Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oil. Their incorporation into advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. Arterioscler. Thromb. 1991; 11: 903–11.
7MJ Davies . Stability and instability: two faces of coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 1996; 94: 2013–20.
9WP Newman III, MT Propst , JP Middaugh . Atherosclerosis in Alaska natives and non-natives. Lancet 1993; 341: 1056–7.
10T Hamazaki , M Urakaze , S Sawazaki , K Yamazaki , H Taki , S. Yano Comparison of pulse wave velocity of the aorta between inhabitants of fishing and farming villages in Japan. Atherosclerosis 1988; 73: 157–60.
13JYT Lam , JJ Badimon , RD Ellefson , V Fuster , JH Chesebro . Cod liver oil alters platelet–arterial wall response to injury in pigs. Circ. Res. 1992; 71: 769–75.
14LA Harker , AB Kelly , SR Hanson , Interruption of vascular thrombus formation and vascular lesion formation by dietary n-3 fatty acids in fish oil in nonhuman primates. Circulation 1993; 87: 1017–29.
15D Kim , J Schmee and JE Baker , Dietary fish oil reduces microthrombi over atherosclerotic lesions in hyperlipidemic swine even in the absence of plasma cholesterol reduction. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 1993; 59: 122–35.
18EB Schmidt , SD Kristensen , R De Caterina , DR Illingworth . The effects of n-3 fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 1993; 103: 107–21.
19WS Harris . n-3 fatty acids and lipoproteins: comparison of results from human and animal studies. Lipids 1996; 31: 243–52.
20MC Morris , F Sacks , B. Rosner Does fish oil lower blood pressure? Circulation 1993; 88: 523–33.
21I Toft , KH Bønaa , OC Ingebretsen , A Nordøy and T. Jenssen Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertention. Ann. Intern. Med. 1995; 123: 911–18.
22E. Ernst Effects of n-3 fatty acids on blood rheology. J. Intern. Med. 1989; 225: (Suppl. 1), 129–32.
23GK Goode , S Garcia , AM Heagerty . Dietary supplementation with marine fish oil improves. in vitro small artery endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients. Circulation 1997; 96: 2802–7.
24BL Rodriquez , DS Sharp , RD Abbott , . Fish intake may limit the increase in risk of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality among heavy smokers. Circulation 1996; 94: 952–6.
25E Shahar , AR Folsom , SL Melnick , . Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994; 331: 228–33.
26P Bjerregaard , J. Dyerberg Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Greenland. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 17: 514–19.
27Y Kagawa , M Nishizawa and M Suzuki , Eicosapolyenoic acids of serum lipids of Japanese islanders with low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 1982; 28: 441–53.
28D Kromhout , EB Bosschieter , CDL Coulander . The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1985; 312: 1205–9.
29D Kromhout , EJM Feskens , CH Bowles . The protective effect of a small amount of fish on coronary heart disease mortality in an elderly population. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1995; 24: 340–5.
30ML Daviglus , J Stamler , AJ Orencia , Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997; 336: 1046–53.
31SE Norell , A Ahlbom , M Feychting , Fish consumption and mortality from heart disease. BMJ 1986; 293, 426.
32A Gramenzi , A Gentile , M Fasoli , Association between certain foods and risk of acute myocardial infarction in women. BMJ 1990; 300: 771–3.
33TA Dolecek , G. Grandits Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial (MRFIT). World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 1991; 66: 205–16.
34EJM Feskens , CH Bowles , D. Kromhout Association between fish intake and coronary heart disease mortality. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 1029–34.
39T Simonsen , Å Vårtun and V Lyngmo , Coronary heart disease, serum lipids, platelets and dietary fish in two communities in northern Norway. Acta Med. Scand. 1987; 222: 237–45.
40A Ascherio , EB Rimm , MJ Stampfer , EL Giovannucci and WC Willett . Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary disease among men. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 332: 977–82.
41CM Albert , CH Hennekens , CJ O'Donnell , Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. JAMA 1998; 279: 23–8.
42R Saynor , D Verel , T. Gillott The long term effect of dietary supplementation with fish lipid concentrate on serum lipids, bleeding time, platelets and angina. Atherosclerosis 1984; 50: 3–10.
43SD Kristensen , EB Schmidt , HR Andersen , J. Dyerberg Fish oil in angina pectoris. Atherosclerosis 1987; 64: 13–19.
45M De Lorgeril , S Renaud , N Mamelle , Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 1994; 343: 1454–9.
46RB Singh , MA Niaz , JP Sharma , R Kumar , V Rastogi , M. Moshiri Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival – 4. Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. 1997; 11: 485–91.
47JP Gapinski , JV VanRuiswyk , GR Heudebert , GS Schectman . Preventing restenosis with fish oils following coronary angioplasty. A meta-analysis. Arch. Intern. Med. 1993; 153: 1595–601.
48JA Cairns , J Gill and B Morton , Fish oils and low-molecular-weight heparin for the reduction of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Circulation 1994; 94, 1553–60.
49A Leaf , MB Jorgensen , AK Jacobs , Do fish oils prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty? Circulation 1994; 90: 2248–57.
50O Johansen , M Brekke , I Seljeflot , M Abdelnoor , H. Arnesen n-3 fatty acids do not prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty: results from the CART study. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1999; 33: 1619–26.
52J Eritsland , H Arnesen , K Grønseth , NB Fjeld , M. Abdelnoor Effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on coronary artery bypass graft patency. Am. J. Cardiol. 1996; 77: 31–6.
53JS Charnock , PL McLennan and MY Abeywardena . Dietary modulation of lipid metabolism and mechanical performance of the heart. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1992; 116: 19–25.
56H Hallaq , TW Smith , A. Leaf Modulation of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in heart cells by fish oil fatty acids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1992; 89: 1760–4.
57JX Kang , A. Leaf Prevention and termination of beta-adrenergic agonist-induced arrhythmias by free polyunsaturated fatty acids in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1995; 208: 629–36.
59JX Kang , A. Leaf Antiarrhythmic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Recent studies. Circulation 1996; 94: 1774–80.
60R Luostarinen , M Boberg , T. Saldeen Fatty acid composition in total phospholipids of human coronary arteries in sudden cardiac death. Atherosclerosis 1993; 99: 187–93.
61DS Siscovick , TE Raghunathan , I King , Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA 1995; 274: 1363–7.
62JH Christensen , P Gustenhoff , E Ejlersen , n-3 fatty acids and ventricular extrasystoles in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Nutr. Res. 1995; 15, 1–8.
63A Sellmayer , H Witzgall , RL Lorenz , PC Weber . Effects of dietary fish oil on ventricular premature complexes. Am. J. Cardiol. 1995; 76: 974–7.
64Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation 1996; 93, 1043–65.
65JH Christensen , P Gustenhoff and E Korup , Effect of fish oil on heart rate variability in survivors of myocardial infarction: a double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1996; 312: 677–8.
66JH Christensen , E Korup and J Aarøe , Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids in cell membranes, and heart rate variability in survivors of myocardial infarction with left ventricular dysfunction. Am. J. Cardiol. 1997; 79: 1670–3.
70FM Sacks , PH Stone , M Gibson , DI Silverman , B Rosner , RC Pasternak . Controlled trial of fish oil for regression of human coronary atherosclerosis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1995; 25: 1492–8.
71C Von Schacky , P Angerer , W Kothny , K Theisen , H. Mudra The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 1999; 130: 554–62.
72JT Salonen , K Seppänen , K Nyyssönen , Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in eastern Finnish men. Circulation 1995; 91: 645–55.
73JL Witzkum and D. Steinberg Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis. J. Clin. Invest. 1991; 88: 1785–92.
75IR Brude , CA Drevon , I Hjermann , Peroxidation of LDL from combined-hyperlipidemic male smokers supplied with ω-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 1997; 17: 2576–88.
76P Smith , H Arnesen , T Opstad , Influence of highly concentrated n-3 fatty acids on serum lipids and hemostatic variables in survivors of myocardial infarction receiving either oral anticoagulants or matching placebo. Thromb. Res. 1989; 53: 467–74.
77NK Bender , MA Kraynak , E Chiquette , WD Linn , GM Clark and HI Bussey . Effects of marine fish oils on the anticoagulation status of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. J. Thromb. Thrombolys. 1998; 5, 257–61.
78EB Schmidt , JM Møller , N Svaneborg and J. Dyerberg Safety aspects of fish oils. Drug Invest. 1994; 7, 215–20.
81PC Weber . Clinical studies on the effect of n-3 fatty acids on cells and eicosanoids in the cardiovascular system. J. Intern. Med. 1989; 225(Suppl. 1), 61–8.
82GV Skuladottir , S Gudmundsdottir , GB Olafsson , Plasma fatty acids and lipids in two separate, but genetically comparable, Icelandic populations. Lipids 1995; 30: 649–55.
83IS Newton . Global food fortification perspectives of long-chained omega 3 fatty acids. In: AP Simopoulos , ed. The Return of Omega 3 Fatty Acids into the Food Supply. I. Land-based Animal Food Products and their Health Effects. Basel: Karger, 1998; 199–209.
87HV Barron , S. Viskin Autonomic markers and prediction of cardiac death after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1998; 351: 461–2.