1Van Duyn MA, Pivonka E. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2000; 100: 1511–1521.
2World Cancer Research Fund. Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997.
3Ness AR, Powles JW. Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. International Journal of Epidemiology 1997; 26: 1–13.
4Ello-Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005; 82: 236S–241S.
5National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999–2002. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS, 2003.
6Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. National Cholesterol Educational Program: 2nd report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II). Circulation 1994; 89: 1329–1445.
7Fagot-Campagna A, Burrows NR, Williamson DF. The public health epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents: a case study of American Indian adolescents in the southwestern United States. Clinica Chimica Acta 1999; 286: 81–95.
8Greenwald P, Kramer B, Weed DL. Cancer Prevention and Control. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1995.
9Resnicow K, Smith M, Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Vaughan R, Davis M. 2-year tracking of children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 785–789.
10Kelder SH, Perry CL, Klepp KI, Lytle LL. Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity, and food choice behaviors. American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84: 1121–1126.
11Singer MR, Moore LL, Garrahie EJ, Ellison RC. The tracking of nutrient intake in young children: the Framingham children’s study. American Journal of Public Health 1995; 85: 1673–1677.
12Crane NT, Hubbard VS, Lewis CJ. National nutrition objectives and the dietary guidelines for Americans. Nutrition Today 1998; 33: 49–58.
13Krebs-Smith SM, Cook A, Subar AF, Cleveland L, Friday J, Kahle LL. Fruit and vegetable intakes of children and adolescents in the United States. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1996; 150: 81–86.
14Te Velde SJ, Wind M, van Lenthe FJ, Klepp K, Brug J. Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and determinants of intakes between children of Dutch origin and non-western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands – a cross sectional study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006; 3: 31.
15Yngve A, Wolf A, Poortvliet E, Elmadfa I, Brug J, Ehrenblad B, et al. . Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2005; 49: 236–245.
16Wolf A, Yngve A, Elmadfa I, Poortvliet E, Ehrenblad B, Pérez-Rodrigo C, et al. . Fruit and vegetable intake of mothers of 11-year-old children in nine European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2005; 49: 246–254.
17Agudo A, Slimani N, Ocké MC, Naska A, Miller AB, Kroke A, et al. . Consumption of vegetables, fruit and other plant foods in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 1179–1196.
18Baranowski T, Domel S, Gould R.Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among 4th and 5th grade students: results from focus groups using reciprocal determinism. Journal of Nutrition Education 1993; 25: 114–120.
19Rasmussen M, Krølner R, Klepp K, Lytle L, Brug J, Bere E, et al. . Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: Quantitative studies. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006; 3: 22.
20Roos E, Lahelma E, Virtanen M, Prättälä R, Pietinen P. Gender, socioeconomic status and family status as determinants of food behaviour. Social Science & Medicine 1998; 46: 1519–1529.
21Haire-Joshu D, Kreuter MK, Holt C, Steger-May K. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2004; 36: 309–314.
22Cullen KW, Eagan J, Baranowski T, Owens E, de Moor C. Effect of a la carte and snack bar foods at school on children’s lunchtime intake of fruits and vegetables. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2000; 100: 1482–1486.
23Cullen KW, Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Koehly L. Measuring stage of change for fruit and vegetable consumption in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1998; 21: 241–254.
24Domel SB, Baranowski T, Thompson WO, Davis HC, Leonard SB, Baranowski J. Psychosocial predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in children. Health Education Research, Theory, & Practice 1996; 11: 299–308.
25Granner ML, Sargent RG, Calderon KS, Hussey JR, Evans AE, Watkins KW. Factors of fruit and vegetable intake by race, gender, and age among young adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2004; 36: 173–180.
26Pérez-Rodrigo C, Ribas L, Serra-Majem L, Aranceta J. Food preferences of Spanish children and young people: The enKid Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 57 (Suppl. 1): S45–S48.
27Resnicow K, Davis-Hearn M, Smith M, Baranowski T, Lin LS, Baranowski J, et al. . Social-cognitive predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in children. Health Psychology 1997; 16: 272–276.
28Vereecken CA, Van Damme W, Maes L. Measuring attitudes, self-efficacy, and social and environmental influences on fruit and vegetable consumption of 11- and 12-year-old children: reliability and validity. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2005; 105: 257–261.
29Reynolds KD, Baranowski T, Bishop DB, Farris RP, Binkley D, Nicklas TA, et al. . Patterns in child and adolescent consumption of fruit and vegetables: effects of gender and ethnicity across four sites. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1999; 18: 248–254.
30Cullen KW, Baranowski T, Owens E, Marsh T, Rittenberry L, de Moor C. Availability, accessibility, and preferences for fruit, 100% fruit juice, and vegetables influence children’s dietary behavior. Health Education & Behavior 2003; 30: 615–626.
31Wind M, de Bourdeaudhuij I, te Velde SJ, Sandvik C, Due P, Klepp KI, et al. . Correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among 11-year-old Belgian-Flemish and Dutch schoolchildren. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2006; 38: 211–221.
32Bere E, Klepp K. Correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among Norwegian schoolchildren: parental and self-reports. Public Health Nutrition 2004; 7: 991–998.
33Martens MK, van Assema P, Brug J. Why do adolescents eat what they eat? Personal and social environmental predictors of fruit, snack and breakfast consumption among 12–14-year-old Dutch students. Public Health Nutrition 2005; 8: 1258–1265.
34Sandvik C, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Due P, Brug J, Wind M, Bere E, et al. . Personal, social and environmental factors regarding fruit and vegetable intake among schoolchildren in nine European countries. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2005; 49: 255–266.
35Hearn MD, Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Doyle C, Smith M, Lin L, et al. . Environmental influences on dietary behavior among children: availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables enable consumption. Journal of Health Education 1998; 29: 26–32.
36Kratt P, Reynolds K, Shewchuk R. The role of availability as a moderator of family fruit and vegetable consumption. Health Education & Behavior 2000; 27: 471–482.
37De Bourdeaudhuij I, Yngve A, Te Velde SJ, Klepp KI, Rasmussen M, Thorsdottir I, et al. . Personal, social and environmental correlates of vegetable intake in normal weight and overweight 9 to 13-year old boys. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2006; 3: 37.
38Dadds MR, Perrin S, Yule W. Social desirability and self-reported anxiety in children: an analysis of the RCMAS lie scale. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1998; 26: 311–317.
39Klesges RC, Haddock CK, Eck LH. A multimethod approach to the measurement of childhood physical activity and its relationship to blood pressure and body weight. Journal of Pediatrics 1990; 116: 888–893.
40Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Thompson D, Cullen KW, Watson K, et al. . Fit for Life Boy Scout badge: outcome evaluation of a troop and Internet intervention. Preventive Medicine 2006; 42: 181–187.
41 Thompson D, Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Cullen K, Jago R, Watson K, et al. Boy Scout 5 A Day achievement badge: outcome results of a troop and Internet intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007; submitted.
42Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
43Domel SB, Baranowski T, Davis H, Leonard SB, Riley P, Baranowski J. Measuring fruit and vegetable preferences among 4th- and 5th-grade students. Preventive Medicine 1993; 22: 866–879.
44Marsh T, Cullen KW, Baranowski T. Validation of a fruit, juice, and vegetable availability questionnaire. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2003; 35: 93–97.
45Reynolds CR, Paget KD. National normative and reliability data for the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale. School Psychology Review 1983; 12: 324–326.
46 US Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. 2000 CDC growth charts: United States [online]. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/. Accessed 8 July 2005.
47Cullen KW, Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Hebert D, de Moor C. Pilot study of the validity and reliability of brief fruit, juice and vegetable screeners among inner city African-American boys and 17 to 20 year old adults. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1999; 18: 442–450.
48Singer J. Using SAS PROC MIXED to fit multilevel models, hierarchical models, and individual growth models. Journal of Education and Behavioral Statistics 1998; 24: 323–355.
49Snijders T, Bosker R. Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling. London: Sage Publications, 1999.
50Cullen KW, Baranowski T, Nwachokor A, Baranowski J, Hajek RA, Lones LA. 5 A day achievement badge for urban Boy Scouts: formative evaluation results. Journal of Cancer Education 1998; 13: 162–168.
51Young EM, Fors SW, Hayes DM. Associations between perceived parent behaviors and middle school student fruit and vegetable consumption. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2004; 36: 2–8.
52Johnson RK, Guthrie H, Smiciklas-Wright H, Wang MQ. Characterizing nutrient intakes of children by sociodemographic factors. Public Health Reports 1994; 109: 414–420.
53Rogers MA, Simon DG, Zucker LB, Mackessy JS, Newman-Palmer NB. Indicators of poor dietary habits in a high risk population. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1995; 14: 159–164.
54Serra-Majem L, Ribas L, Pérez-Rodrigo C, García-Closas R, Peña-Quintana L, Aranceta J. Determinants of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: results from the enKid study. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2002; 46 (Suppl. 1): 31–38.
55Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Cullen KW, deMoor C, Rittenberry L, Hebert D, et al. . 5 a day Achievement Badge for African American Boy Scouts: pilot outcome results. Preventive Medicine 2002; 34: 353–363.