Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Reformulation of pizza crust in restaurants may increase whole-grain intake among children

  • Aimee Tritt (a1), Marla Reicks (a1) and Len Marquart (a1)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

Whole-grain intake among children is well below recommendations. The purpose of the present study was to test the acceptability and liking of pizza made with whole-grain crust compared with refined-grain crust among children in restaurant and school settings.

Design

Plate waste data were collected via observation from child restaurant patrons consuming pizza made with either whole-grain or refined-grain crust. Waste was estimated by trained observers over eight months (August 2012–March 2013). Percentage waste was calculated and compared by crust type. A taste test was conducted with school children who tasted pizza made with whole-grain crust alongside pizza made with refined-grain crust and rated their liking of each product. Liking ratings were compared by crust type.

Setting

Five Green Mill restaurant (a Midwest US chain) locations and one elementary school in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA.

Subjects

Child restaurant patrons (n 394) and school children (n 120, grades 3–5).

Results

Children consumed as much of the pizza made with whole-grain crust (42·1 %) as the pizza made with refined-grain crust (44·6 %; P=0·55), based on an average serving size of 350–400 g. Liking ratings for both types of pizza were high (>4·5 of 5) and did not differ by crust type (P=0·47).

Conclusions

These positive consumption and liking outcomes indicate that whole-grain pizza crust is well accepted among children in a restaurant setting. The impact on whole-grain intake could be substantial if large, national restaurant chains served pizza made with whole-grain crust.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Reformulation of pizza crust in restaurants may increase whole-grain intake among children
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Reformulation of pizza crust in restaurants may increase whole-grain intake among children
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Reformulation of pizza crust in restaurants may increase whole-grain intake among children
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email mreicks@umn.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. EQ Ye , SA Chacko , EL Chou et al. (2012) Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain. J Nutr 142, 13041313.

3. M Reicks , S Jonnalagadda , A Albertson et al. (2014) Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 and 2010. Nutr Res 34, 226234.

5. EM Condon , MK Crepinsek & MK Fox (2009) Types of foods offered to and consumed by children at lunch and breakfast. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 2 Suppl, S67–S78.

9. YL Chu , CA Warren , CE Sceets et al. (2011) Acceptance of two US Department of Agriculture commodity whole-grain products: a school-based study in Texas and Minnesota. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 13801384.

10. A Toma , MB Omary , LF Marquart et al. (2009) Children’s acceptance, nutritional, and instrumental evaluations of whole grain and soluble fiber enriched foods. J Food Sci 74, H139H146.

13. R Popper & JJ Kroll (2007) Consumer testing of food products using children. In Consumer-Led Food Product Development, pp. 383406 [H MacFie, editor]. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited.

15. S Ramsay , S Safaii , T Croschere et al. (2013) Kindergarteners’ entree intake increases when served a larger entree potion in school lunch: a quasi-experiment. J Sch Health 83, 239242.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 41 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 158 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.