Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The school environment and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Guatemalan adolescents

  • Katelyn M Godin (a1), Violeta Chacón (a2), Joaquin Barnoya (a2) (a3) and Scott T Leatherdale (a1)
Abstract
Objective

The current study sought to examine Guatemalan adolescents’ consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), identify which individual-level characteristics are associated with SSB consumption and describe school characteristics that may influence students’ SSB consumption.

Design

Within this observational pilot study, a questionnaire was used to assess students’ consumption of three varieties of SSB (soft drinks, energy drinks, sweetened coffees/teas), as well as a variety of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics. We collected built environment data to examine aspects of the school food environment. We developed Poisson regression models for each SSB variety and used descriptive analyses to characterize the sample.

Setting

Guatemala City, Guatemala.

Subjects

Guatemalan adolescents (n 1042) from four (two public, two private) secondary schools.

Results

Built environment data revealed that students from the two public schools lacked access to water fountains/coolers. The SSB industry had a presence in the schools through advertisements, sponsored food kiosks and products available for sale. Common correlates of SSB consumption included school type, sedentary behaviour, frequency of purchasing lunch in the cafeteria, and frequency of purchasing snacks from vending machines in school and off school property.

Conclusions

Guatemalan adolescents frequently consume SSB, which may be encouraged by aspects of the school environment. Schools represent a viable setting for equitable population health interventions designed to reduce SSB consumption, including increasing access to clean drinking-water, reducing access to SSB, restricting SSB marketing and greater enforcement of existing food policies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The school environment and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Guatemalan adolescents
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The school environment and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Guatemalan adolescents
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The school environment and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Guatemalan adolescents
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email kmgodin@uwaterloo.ca
References
Hide All
1. Mbowe, O, Diaz, A, Wallace, J et al. (2014) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Guatemalan school children. Matern Child Health J 8, 16191627.
2. Ramirez-Zea, M, Kroker-Lobos, MF, Close-Fernandez, R et al. (2014) The double burden of malnutrition in indigenous and nonindigenous Guatemalan populations. Am J Clin Nutr 100, issue 6, 1644S1651S.
3. Kain, J, Cordero, SH, Pineda, D et al. (2014) Obesity prevention in Latin America. Curr Obes Rep 3, 150155.
4. Rivera, , de Cossío, TG, Pedraza, LS et al. (2014) Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Latin America: a systematic review. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2, 321332.
5. Uauy, R & Monteiro, CA (2004) The challenge of improving food and nutrition in Latin America. Food Nutr Bull 25, 175182.
6. Singh, GM, Micha, R, Khatibzadeh, S et al. (2015) Global, regional, and national consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, and milk: a systematic assessment of beverage intake in 187 countries. PLoS One 10, e0124845.
7. Malik, VS, Schulze, MB & Hu, FB (2006) Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 274288.
8. Te Morenga, L, Mallard, S & Mann, J (2012) Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ 346, e7492.
9. Malik, VS, Willett, WC & Hu, FB (2009) Sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI in children and adolescents: reanalyses of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 438439.
10. Malik, VS & Hu, FB (2011) Sugar-sweetened beverages and health: where does the evidence stand? Am J Clin Nutr 94, 11611162.
11. Malik, VS, Popkin, BM, Bray, GA et al. (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 33, 24772483.
12. Hu, FB & Malik, VS (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence. Physiol Behav 100, 4754.
13. Harrington, S (2008) The role of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescent obesity: a review of the literature. J Sch Nurs 24, 312.
14. Frary, CD, Johnson, RK & Wang, MQ (2004) Children and adolescents’ choices of foods and beverages high in added sugars are associated with intakes of key nutrients and food groups. J Adolesc Health 34, 5663.
15. Libuda, L, Alexy, U, Buyken, AE et al. (2009) Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and its association with nutrient intakes and diet quality in German children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 101, 15491557.
16. Fiorito, LM, Marini, M, Mitchell, DC et al. (2010) Girls’ early sweetened carbonated beverage intake predicts different patterns of beverage and nutrient intake across childhood and adolescence. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 543550.
17. Vartanian, LR, Schwartz, MB & Brownell, KD (2007) Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 97, 667675.
18. World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
19. Heller, KE, Burt, BA & Eklund, SA (2001) Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States. J Dent Res 80, 19491953.
20. Sohn, W, Burt, BA & Sowers, MR (2006) Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition. J Dent Res 85, 262266.
21. Warren, JJ, Weber‐Gasparoni, K, Marshall, TA et al. (2009) A longitudinal study of dental caries risk among very young low SES children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 37, 116122.
22. Touger-Decker, R & van Loveren, C (2003) Sugars and dental caries. Am J Clin Nutr 78, issue 4, 881S892S.
23. Letona, P, Ramirez-Zea, M, Caballero, B et al. (2014) Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children. BMC Public Health 14, 101.
24. Pehlke, EL, Letona, P, Ramirez-Zea, M et al. (2016) Healthy casetas: a potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City. Ecol Food Nutr 55, 324338.
25. Bredin, C, Chacon, V, Barnoya, J et al. (2015) Expansion of the COMPASS study to Guatemala: a program of training and research designed to improve youth health through school-based programs, policies and built environment resources. COMPASS Tech Rep Ser 3, issue 6. https://uwaterloo.ca/compass-system/publications/expansion-compass-study-guatemala-program-training (accessed July 2017).
26. Leatherdale, ST, Brown, KS, Carson, V et al. (2014) The COMPASS study: a longitudinal hierarchical research platform for evaluating natural experiments related to changes in school-level programs, policies and built environment resources. BMC Public Health 14, 331.
27. Leatherdale, ST, Bredin, C & Blashill, J (2014) A software application for use in handheld devices to collect school built environment data. Measurement 50, 331338.
28. Bredin, C & Leatherdale, ST (2014) Development of the COMPASS student questionnaire. COMPASS Tech Rep Ser 2, issue 2. https://uwaterloo.ca/compass-system/publications/development-compass-student-questionnaire (accessed July 2017).
29. World Health Organization (2015) Growth reference 5–19 years: BMI-for-age (5–19 years). http://www.who.int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/ (accessed July 2017).
30. Bermudez, OI, Toher, C, Montenegro-Bethancourt, G et al. (2010) Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Nutr J 9, 1.
31. Montenegro-Bethancourt, G, Doak, CM & Solomons, N (2009) Fruit and vegetable intake of schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Rev Panam Salud Publica 25, 146156.
32. Herciu, A, Laxer, R, Cole, A et al. (2014) A cross-sectional study examining factors associated with youth binge drinking in the COMPASS study: year 1 data. J Alcohol Drug Depend 2, 2.
33. Leatherdale, ST (2015) An examination of the co-occurrence of modifiable risk factors associated with chronic disease among youth in the COMPASS study. Cancer Causes Control 26, 519528.
34. Patte, KA & Leatherdale, ST (2017) A cross-sectional analysis examining the association between dieting behaviours and alcohol use among secondary school students in the COMPASS study. J Public Health (Oxf) 39, 321329.
35. Leatherdale, ST & Harvey, A (2015) Examining communication-and media-based recreational sedentary behaviors among Canadian youth: results from the COMPASS study. Prev Med 74, 7480.
36. Minaker, L & Leatherdale, ST (2016) Association between weight and smoking not mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying. Am J Health Behav 40, 2130.
37. Dewey, KG, Romero-Abal, ME, Quan de Serrano, J et al. (1997) A randomized intervention study of the effects of discontinuing coffee intake on growth and morbidity of iron-deficient Guatemalan toddlers. J Nutr 127, 306313.
38. Engle, PL, VasDias, T, Howard, I et al. (1999) Effects of discontinuing coffee intake on iron deficient Guatemalan toddlers’ cognitive development and sleep. Early Hum Dev 53, 251269.
39. Montenegro‐Bethancourt, G, Vossenaar, M, Doak, CM et al. (2010) Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third‐and fourth‐grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Matern Child Nutr 6, 174189.
40. Nagata, JM, Barg, FK, Valeggia, CR et al. (2011) Coca-colonization and hybridization of diets among the Tz’utujil Maya. Ecol Food Nutr 50, 297318.
41. Makkes, S, Montenegro‐Bethancourt, G, Groeneveld, IF et al. (2011) Beverage consumption and anthropometric outcomes among schoolchildren in Guatemala. Matern Child Nutr 7, 410420.
42. Pehlke, EL, Letona, P, Hurley, K et al. (2016) Guatemalan school food environment: impact on schoolchildren’s risk of both undernutrition and overweight/obesity. Health Promot Int 31, 542550.
43. Secretaría de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional (2012) Plan del Pacto Hambre Cero en Guatemala. http://web.maga.gob.gt/wp-content/uploads/pdf/home/pacto_hambre_cero.pdf (accessed August 2017).
44. Comisión Nacional de Escuelas Saludables Ministerio de Educación de Guatemala (2014) Escuelas Saludables Dirección General de Fortalecimiento de la Comunidad Educativa. http://www.mineduc.gob.gt/DIGEFOCE/documents/2014/GUIA_BASICA_ESCUELAS_SALUDABLES_A_COLOR.pdf (accessed August 2017).
45. Chacon, V, Letona, P, Villamor, E et al. (2015) Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala. Crit Public Health 25, 291298.
46. Rideout, K, Levy-Milne, R, Martin, C et al. (2007) Food sales outlets, food availability, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia. Can J Public Health 98, 246250.
47. Park, S, Sappenfield, WM, Huang, Y et al. (2010) The impact of the availability of school vending machines on eating behavior during lunch: the Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 15321536.
48. Johnson, DB, Bruemmer, B, Lund, AE et al. (2009) Impact of school district sugar-sweetened beverage policies on student beverage exposure and consumption in middle schools. J Adolesc Health 45, 3 Suppl., S30S37.
49. Grimm, GC, Harnack, L & Story, M (2004) Factors associated with soft drink consumption in school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 12441249.
50. Wiecha, JL, Finkelstein, D, Troped, PJ et al. (2006) School vending machine use and fast-food restaurant use are associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake in youth. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 16241630.
51. Mâsse, LC, de Niet-Fitzgerald, JE, Watts, AW et al. (2014) Associations between the school food environment, student consumption and body mass index of Canadian adolescents. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 11, 29.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Godin supplementary material
Godin supplementary material

 Word (20 KB)
20 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed