1Beaver SE. Demographic Transition Theory Reinterpreted. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1975.
2Zelensky W. The hypothesis of the mobility transition. Geographical Review 1971; 61(1): 219–49.
3Omran AR. The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 1971; 49: 509–38.
4Omran AR. Epidemiologic transition in the United States: the health factor in population change. Population Bulletin 1977; 32(2): 2–42.
5Omran AR. Epidemiologic transition. In: Ross JA, ed. International Encyclopedia of Population. New York: Free Press, 1982; 172–5.
6Harrison D. The Sociology of Modernization and Development. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman, 1988.
7Sobal J. Food system globalization, eating transformations, and nutrition transitions. In: Grew R, ed. Food in Global History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999; 171–93.
8Case KE, Fair RC. Principles of Economics, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1994.
9Popkin BM. Urbanization, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition. World Development 1999; 27: 1905–16.
10Popkin BM, Bisgrove EZ. Urbanization and nutrition in low income countries. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 1988; 10: 3–23.
11Popkin BM, Paeratakul S, Zhai F, Ge K. Dietary and environmental correlates of obesity in a population study in China. Obesity Research 1995; 3: 135S–43S.
12Prentice AM, Jebb SA. Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth?. British Medical Journal 1995; 311: 437–9.
13Sobal J. Social and cultural influences on obesity. In: Bjorntorp P, ed. International Textbook of Obesity. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 2001; 305–22.
14French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annual Review of Public Health 2001; 22: 309–35.
15Hill JO, Peters JC. Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science 1998; 280: 1371–4.
16Grigg D. The nutrition transition in Western Europe. Journal of Historical Geography 1995; 21(3): 247–61.
17Bennett MK. International contrasts in food consumption. Geographical Review 1941; 31: 365–76.
18Bennett MK. The World's Food: A Study of the Interrelations of World Population, National Diets, and Food Potentials. New York: Harper, 1954.
19Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Income Effect on the Structure of Diet: Provisional Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development. Rome: FAO, 1973; 2: 500–5.
20Pelto GH, Pelto PJ. Diet and delocalization: dietary change since 1975. In: Rothberg RI, Rabb TK, eds. Hunger and History: The Impact of Changing Food Production and Consumption Patterns on Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983; 309–30.
21Burns C, Jackson M, Gibbons C, Stoney RM. Foods prepared outside the home: association with selected nutrients and body mass index in adult Australians. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 441–8.
22Warde A, Martens L. Eating Out: Social Differentiation, Consumption, and Pleasure. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
23Kim S, Moon S, Popkin BM. The nutrition transition in South Korea. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 71: 44–53.
24Monteiro CA, Mondini L, de Souza AL, Popkin BM. The nutrition transition in Brazil. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; 46: 105–13.
25Popkin BM. Nutritional patterns and transitions. Population and Development Review 1993; 19: 138–57.
26Popkin BM. The nutrition transition in low income countries: an emerging crisis. Nutrition Reviews 1994; 52: 285–98.
27Popkin BM. The nutrition transition and its health implications in lower income countries. Public Health Nutrition 1998; 1: 1–21.
28Popkin BM. The shift in stages of the nutrition transition in the developing world differs from past experiences. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 205–14.
29Popkin BM, Ge K, Zhai F, Guo X, Ma H, Zohoori N. The nutrition transition in China: a cross-sectional analysis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993; 47: 333–46.
30Drewnowski A, Popkin BM. The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutrition Reviews 1997; 55: 31–43.
31National Statistical Office. Korean Statistical Yearbook. Seoul: Government Printing, 1971–1995 [in Korean].
32National Statistical Office. Social Indicators in Korea. Seoul: Government Printing, 1971–1997 [in Korean].
33Ministry of Construction and Transportation. Statistical Yearbook of Transportation. Seoul: Government Printing, 1973–1993 [in Korean].
34Senauer B, Asp E, Kinsey J. Food Trends and the Changing Consumer. St. Paul, MN: Eagan Press, 1991.
35Lee SK, Sobal J, Frongillo EA. Acculturation and dietary practices among Korean Americans. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99: 1084–9.
36Korean Rural Economics Institute. Food Balance Sheet. Seoul: Government Printing, 1971–1993 [in Korean].
37Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. National Nutrition Survey Report. Seoul: Government Printing, 1972–1995 [in Korean].
38Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. Yearbook of Health and Social Statistics. Seoul: Government Printing, 1971–1993 [in Korean].
39Ministry of Education. Statistical Yearbook of Education. Seoul: Government Printing, 1970–1994 [in Korean].
40Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
41Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Popkin BM. The relationship of ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and overweight in US adolescents. Obesity Research 2003; 11: 121–9.
42Hatcher L. A Step-by-Step Approach to Using the SAS System for Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1994.
43Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press, 1988.
44Mo S. The culture of eating out adds nutritional problems. Journal of the Korean Medical Association 1990; 33: 27–31 [in Korean].
45 Hangeyre Newspaper. High lead content in imported seafood from China. 26 11 2001 [in Korean].
46Moon CS, Zhang ZW, Imai Y, Shimbo S, Watanabe T, Moon DH, et al. Nutrition evaluation of women in urban and rural areas in Korea as studied by the total food duplicate method. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 1997; 181: 245–65 [in Japanese].
47National Statistical Office. Footsteps of Korea through Statistics. Seoul: Government Printing, 1995 [in Korean].
48Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.
49Cash TF, Roy RE. Pounds of flesh. In: Sobal J, Maurer D, eds. Interpreting Weight: The Social Mangement of Fatness and Thinness. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1999.
50Kosulwat V. The nutrition and health transition in Thailand. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 183–9.
51Shetty PS. Nutrition transition in India. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 175–82.
52Du S, Lu B, Zhai F, Popkin BM. A new stage of the nutrition transition in China. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 169–74.
53Noor MI. The nutrition and health transition in Malaysia. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 191–5.
54Lee MJ, Popkin BM, Kim S. The unique aspects of the nutrition transition in South Korea: the retention of healthful elements in their traditional diet. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 197–203.
55Yoshiike N, Seino F, Tajima S, Arai Y, Kawano M, Furuhata T, et al. Twenty-year changes in the prevalence of overweight in Japanese adults: the National Nutrition Survey 1976–1995. Obesity Reviews 2002; 3: 183–90.
56Morgenstern H. Ecologic studies in epidemiology: concepts, principles, and methods. Annual Review of Public Health 1995; 16: 61–81.
57Moon HK. The method of the Korean National Nutrition Survey. Korean Journal of Nutrition 1994; 27: 509–24 [in Korean].
58Campbell TC, Chen J, Brun T, Parpira B, QU Y, Chen C, et al. China: from diseases of poverty to diseases of affluence. Policy implications of the epidemiological transition. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 1992; 27: 133–44.