Skip to main content
×
Home

Sources of excessive saturated fat, trans fat and sugar consumption in Brazil: an analysis of the first Brazilian nationwide individual dietary survey

  • Rosangela A Pereira (a1) (a2), Kiyah J Duffey (a2), Rosely Sichieri (a3) and Barry M Popkin (a2)
Abstract
Abstract Objective

To examine the patterns of consumption of foods high in solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) in Brazil.

Design

Cross-sectional study; individual dietary intake survey. Food intake was assessed by means of two non-consecutive food records. Foods providing >9·1 % of energy from saturated fat, or >1·3 % of energy from trans fat, or >13 % of energy from added sugars per 100 g were classified as high in SoFAS.

Setting

Brazilian nationwide survey, 2008–2009.

Subjects

Individuals aged ≥10 years old.

Results

Mean daily energy intake was 8037 kJ (1921 kcal), 52 % of energy came from SoFAS foods. Contribution of SoFAS foods to total energy intake was higher among women (52 %) and adolescents (54 %). Participants in rural areas (43 %) and in the lowest quartile of per capita family income (43 %) reported the smallest contribution of SoFAS foods to total energy intake. SoFAS foods were large contributors to total saturated fat (87 %), trans fat (89 %), added sugar (98 %) and total sugar (96 %) consumption. The SoFAS food groups that contributed most to total energy intake were meats and beverages. Top SoFAS foods contributing to saturated fat and trans fat intakes were meats and fats and oils. Most of the added and total sugar in the diet was supplied by SoFAS beverages and sweets and desserts.

Conclusions

SoFAS foods play an important role in the Brazilian diet. The study identifies options for improving the Brazilian diet and reducing nutrition-related non-communicable chronic diseases, but also points out some limitations of the nutrient-based criteria.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Sources of excessive saturated fat, trans fat and sugar consumption in Brazil: an analysis of the first Brazilian nationwide individual dietary survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Sources of excessive saturated fat, trans fat and sugar consumption in Brazil: an analysis of the first Brazilian nationwide individual dietary survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Sources of excessive saturated fat, trans fat and sugar consumption in Brazil: an analysis of the first Brazilian nationwide individual dietary survey
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email rosangela@nutricao.ufrj.br
References
Hide All
1. Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Azevedo e Silva G et al. (2011) Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: burden and current challenges. Lancet 377, 19491961.
2. Levy-Costa RB, Sichieri R, Pontes NS et al. (2005) Household food availability in Brazil: distribution and trends (1974–2003). Rev Saude Publica 39, 530540.
3. Coitinho D, Monteiro CA & Popkin BM (2002) What Brazil is doing to promote healthy diets and active lifestyles. Public Health Nutr 5, 263267.
4. Brasil Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Atenção a Saúde, Coordenação Geral da Política de Alimentação e Nutrição (2006) Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira: Promovendo a Alimentação Saudável. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde; available at http://nutricao.saude.gov.br/guia_conheca.php
5. Brasil Ministério da Saúde (2011) Consea acompanha programa de redução de sal e gordura em alimentos pela indústria. http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/aplicacoes/noticias/default.cfm?pg=dspDetalheNoticia&id_area=124&CO_NOTICIA=12690 (accessed March 2012).
6. Kearney J (2010) Food consumption trends and drivers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365, 27932807.
7. Reardon T & Berdegué J (2002) The rapid rise of supermarkets in Latin America: challenges and opportunities for development. Dev Policy Rev 20, 371388.
8. Hawkes C (2006) Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Global Health 2, 4.
9. Lignani JB, Sichieri R, Burlandy L et al. (2011) Changes in food consumption among the Programa Bolsa Familia participant families in Brazil. Public Health Nutr 14, 785792.
10. Reedy J & Krebs-Smith SM (2010) Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 14771484.
11. US Department of Agriculture (2010) Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: USDA and US DHHS.
12. Monteiro CA, Levy RB, Claro RM et al. (2010) Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil. Public Health Nutr 14, 513.
13. Lobato JC, Costa AJ & Sichieri R (2009) Food intake and prevalence of obesity in Brazil: an ecological analysis. Public Health Nutr 12, 22092215.
14. Levy RB, Claro RM & Monteiro CA (2009) Sugar and total energy content of household food purchases in Brazil. Public Health Nutr 12, 20842091.
15. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2011) Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares, 2008–2009: Análise do Consumo Alimentar Pessoal no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.
16. Sichieri R, Pereira RA, Martins A et al. (2008) Rationale, design, and analysis of combined Brazilian household budget survey and food intake individual data. BMC Public Health 8, 89.
17. Nutrition Coordination Center (2008) Nutrition Data System for Research – NDSR. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
18. Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Alimentação /Universidade de Campinas (2011) TACO – Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos, 4th ed. Campinas: NEPA/UNICAMP.
19. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2011) Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares, 2008–2009: Tabela de Medidas Referidas para os Alimentos Consumidos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.
20. Bezerra IN, Monteiro LS, Araujo MC et al. (2012) Procedures applied to estimate weight and volume measures of selected foods reported in the National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008–2009. Rev Nutr 25, 645655.
21. Roodenburg AJ, Popkin BM & Seidell JC (2011) Development of international criteria for a front of package food labelling system: the International Choices Programme. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 11901200.
22. World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
23. Andrade RG, Pereira RA & Sichieri R (2003) Food intake in overweight and normal-weight adolescents in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Cad Saude Publica 19, 14851495.
24. Nascimento S, Barbosa FS, Sichieri R et al. (2011) Dietary availability patterns of the Brazilian macro-regions. Nutr J 10, 79.
25. Cunha DB, Sichieri R, de Almeida RM et al. (2011) Factors associated with dietary patterns among low-income adults. Public Health Nutr 14, 15791585.
26. Marchioni DM, Latorre MR, Eluf-Neto J et al. (2005) Identification of dietary patterns using factor analysis in an epidemiological study in Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo Med J 123, 124127.
27. Sichieri R, Castro JF & Moura AS (2003) Factors associated with dietary patterns in the urban Brazilian population. Cad Saude Publica 19, Suppl. 1, S47S53.
28. Sichieri R, Moura AS, Genelhu V et al. (2007) An 18-mo randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 707713.
29. Cunha DB, de Almeida RM, Sichieri R et al. (2010) Association of dietary patterns with BMI and waist circumference in a low-income neighbourhood in Brazil. Br J Nutr 104, 908913.
30. Carvalho AM, Cesar CLG, Fisberg RM et al. (2012) Excessive meat consumption in Brazil: diet quality and environmental impacts. Public Health Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
31. Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM et al. (2012) Red meat consumption and mortality: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. Arch Intern Med 172, 555563.
32. Norat T, Bingham S, Ferrari P et al. (2005) Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 97, 906916.
33. Montonen J, Boeing H, Fritsche A et al. (2012) Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. Eur J Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
34. Friel S, Dangour AD, Garnett T et al. (2009) Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture. Lancet 374, 20162025.
35. McMichael AJ, Powles JW, Butler CD et al. (2007) Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health. Lancet 370, 12531263.
36. Maillot M & Drewnowski A (2011) Energy allowances for solid fats and added sugars in nutritionally adequate US diets estimated at 17–33 % by a linear programming model. J Nutr 141, 333340.
37. Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
38. US Department of Agriculture (2010) Nutrient Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, by Gender and Age. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007–2008. Beltsville, MD: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Food Surveys Research Group; available at http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg
39. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2010) Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008–2009: Avaliação Nutricional da Disponibilidade Domiciliar de Alimentos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.
40. Monteiro CA, Levy RB, Claro RM et al. (2010) A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing. Cad Saude Publica 26, 20392049.
41. Falasca M & Casari I (2012) Cancer chemoprevention by nuts: evidence and promises. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 4, 109120.
42. Kris-Etherton PM, Hu FB, Ros E et al. (2008) The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: multiple potential mechanisms. J Nutr 138, issue 9, 1746S1751S.
43. Sabate J & Wien M (2010) Nuts, blood lipids and cardiovascular disease. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19, 131136.
44. Brasil Ministério da Saúde (2009) Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher – PNDS 2006: Dimensões do Processo Reprodutivo e da Saúde da Criança (National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children – PNDS 2006: Dimensions of Reproduction and Child Health). Brasília: Ministério da Saúde.
45. Levy RB, Claro RM, Bandoni DH et al. (2012) Availability of added sugars in Brazil: distribution, food sources and time trends. Rev Bras Epidemiol 15, 312.
46. Dodd KW, Guenther PM, Freedman LS et al. (2006) Statistical methods for estimating usual intake of nutrients and foods: a review of the theory. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 16401650.
47. Lopes TS, Ferrioli E, Pfrimer K et al. (2010) Validation of energy intake estimated by the food record applied in a Brazilian National Individual Dietary Survey by the doubly labeled water method. Presented at II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition, Porto, Portugal, 23–25 September 2010.
48. Barquera S, Hernandez-Barrera L, Campos-Nonato I et al. (2009) Energy and nutrient consumption in adults: analysis of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Salud Publica Mex 51, Suppl. 4, S562S573.
49. Whitton C, Nicholson SK, Roberts C et al. (2011) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys. Br J Nutr 106, 18991914.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Pereira Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Word (219 KB)
219 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 15
Total number of PDF views: 149 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 411 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.