Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 46
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Barquera, Simon Pedroza-Tobias, Andrea and Medina, Catalina 2016. Cardiovascular diseases in mega-countries. Current Opinion in Lipidology, Vol. 27, Issue. 4, p. 329.

    Carey, Gemma Malbon, Eleanor Crammond, Brad Pescud, Melanie and Baker, Philip 2016. Can the sociology of social problems help us to understand and manage ‘lifestyle drift’?. Health Promotion International, p. dav116.

    del Pino, Almudena and Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel 2016. Ethical Evaluation of a Proposed Statutory Regulation of Food Advertising Targeted at Minors in Spain. Public Health Ethics, p. phw029.

    Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, Sofía Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth Flores Monterrubio, Eric Alejandro Harris, Jennifer L Vandevijvere, Stefanie Rivera, Juan A and Barquera, Simón 2016. Nutritional quality of foods and non-alcoholic beverages advertised on Mexican television according to three nutrient profile models. BMC Public Health, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,

    Scharf, Rebecca J. and DeBoer, Mark D. 2016. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Children's Health. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 37, Issue. 1, p. 273.

    Kraak, V. I. and Story, M. 2015. An accountability evaluation for the industry's responsible use of brand mascots and licensed media characters to market a healthy diet to American children. Obesity Reviews, Vol. 16, Issue. 6, p. 433.

    Lana, A Lopez-Garcia, E and Rodríguez-Artalejo, F 2015. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 69, Issue. 11, p. 1226.

    Lee, Seow Ting and Lien, Nguyen Hoang 2015. The influence of adult family members on children's fast food consumption: A health belief perspective. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 185.

    Mehta, K. P. Coveney, J. Ward, P. and Handsley, E. 2014. Parents' and Children's Perceptions of the Ethics of Marketing Energy-Dense Nutrient-Poor Foods on the Internet: Implications for Policy to Restrict Children's Exposure. Public Health Ethics, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 21.

    Ronit, K and Jensen, J D 2014. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing: a literature review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, Issue. 7, p. 753.

    Stein, Daniel Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L. and Latzer, Yael 2014. Psychosocial Perspectives and the Issue of Prevention in Childhood Obesity. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 2,

    Cox, Rachael Skouteris, Helen Dell'Aquila, Daniela Hardy, Lousie L and Rutherford, Leonie 2013. Television viewing behaviour among pre-schoolers: Implications for public health recommendations. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, Vol. 49, Issue. 2, p. E108.

    Edwards, S. Skouteris, H. Rutherford, L. and Cutter-Mackenzie, A. 2013. ‘It's all about Ben10™’: children's play, health and sustainability decisions in the early years. Early Child Development and Care, Vol. 183, Issue. 2, p. 280.

    Ghimire, Neeta and Rao, Arathi 2013. Comparative evaluation of the influence of television advertisements on children and caries prevalence. Global Health Action, Vol. 6,

    Harris, Jennifer L. Sarda, Vishnudas Schwartz, Marlene B. and Brownell, Kelly D. 2013. Redefining “Child-Directed Advertising” to Reduce Unhealthy Television Food Advertising. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 358.

    Kelly, B. King, L. Baur, L. Rayner, M. Lobstein, T. Monteiro, C. Macmullan, J. Mohan, S. Barquera, S. Friel, S. Hawkes, C. Kumanyika, S. L'Abbé, M. Lee, A. Ma, J. Neal, B. Sacks, G. Sanders, D. Snowdon, W. Swinburn, B. Vandevijvere, S. and Walker, C. 2013. Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children. Obesity Reviews, Vol. 14, p. 59.

    Lee, Seow Ting and Nguyen, Hoang Lien 2013. Explicating the Moral Responsibility of the Advertiser: TARES as an Ethical Model for Fast Food Advertising. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 225.

    Borys, J.-M. Le Bodo, Y. Jebb, S. A. Seidell, J. C. Summerbell, C. Richard, D. De Henauw, S. Moreno, L. A. Romon, M. Visscher, T. L. S. Raffin, S. and Swinburn, B. 2012. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development. Obesity Reviews, Vol. 13, Issue. 4, p. 299.

    Gearhardt, Ashley N. Bragg, Marie A. Pearl, Rebecca L. Schvey, Natasha A. Roberto, Christina A. and Brownell, Kelly D. 2012. Obesity and Public Policy. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 405.

    Harris, Jennifer L. and Graff, Samantha K. 2012. Protecting Young People From Junk Food Advertising: Implications of Psychological Research for First Amendment Law. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 102, Issue. 2, p. 214.


Sydney Principles’ for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children

  • Boyd Swinburn (a1), Gary Sacks (a1), Tim Lobstein (a2), Neville Rigby (a2), Louise A Baur (a3), Kelly D Brownell (a4), Tim Gill (a5), Jaap Seidell (a6) and Shiriki Kumanyika (a7)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2008

A set of seven principles (the ‘Sydney Principles’) was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on feedback received from a global consultation (November 2006 to April 2007) on the Principles.

The Principles state that actions to reduce marketing to children should: (i) support the rights of children; (ii) afford substantial protection to children; (iii) be statutory in nature; (iv) take a wide definition of commercial promotions; (v) guarantee commercial-free childhood settings; (vi) include cross-border media; and (vii) be evaluated, monitored and enforced.

The draft principles were widely disseminated and 220 responses were received from professional and scientific associations, consumer bodies, industry bodies, health professionals and others. There was virtually universal agreement on the need to have a set of principles to guide action in this contentious area of marketing to children. Apart from industry opposition to the third principle calling for a statutory approach and several comments about the implementation challenges, there was strong support for each of the Sydney Principles. Feedback on two specific issues of contention related to the age range to which restrictions should apply (most nominating age 16 or 18 years) and the types of products to be included (31 % nominating all products, 24 % all food and beverages, and 45 % energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages).

The Sydney Principles, which took a children’s rights-based approach, should be used to benchmark action to reduce marketing to children. The age definition for a child and the types of products which should have marketing restrictions may better suit a risk-based approach at this stage. The Sydney Principles should guide the formation of an International Code on Food and Beverage Marketing to Children.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Sydney Principles’ for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Sydney Principles’ for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Sydney Principles’ for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.E Millstone & T Lobstein (2007) The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications. Obes Rev 8, Suppl. 2, 2936.

14.MM Haby , T Vos , R Carter , M Moodie , A Markwick , A Magnus , KS Tay-Teo & B Swinburn (2006) A new approach to assessing the health benefit from obesity interventions in children and adolescents: the assessing cost-effectiveness in obesity project. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 14631475.

15.C Hawkes (2007) Regulating and litigating in the public interest: regulating food marketing to young people worldwide: trends and policy drivers. Am J Public Health 97, 19621973.

21.C Hawkes (2005) Self-regulation of food advertising: what it can, could and cannot do to discourage unhealthy eating habits among children. Nutr Bull 30, 374382.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *