1American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures: 1997. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, Inc., 1997.
2Silverberg E, Boring C, Squires T. Cancer statistics. CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians 1990; 40: 9–26.
3American Cancer Society. Estimated New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex for All Sites, United States, 2000. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.
4Cassidy A, Bingham SA, Cummings JH. Starch intake and colorectal cancer risk: an international comparison. Br. J. Cancer 1994; 69(5): 937–42.
5Haenszel W, Berg JW, Segi M, Kurihara M, Locke FB. Large-bowel cancer in Hawaiian Japanese. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1973; 51(6): 1765–79.
6Whittemore AS, Wu-Williams AH, Lee M, Zheng S, Gallagher RP, Jiao DA, et al. Diet, physical activity, and colorectal cancer among Chinese in North America and China. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1990; 82(11): 915–26.
7Adlercreutz H, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR, Woods MN, Dwyer JT, Hamalainen E. Estrogen metabolism and excretion in Oriental and Caucasian women. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1994; 86(14): 1076–82.
8American Association for Cancer Research. Tea Affects the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines and Their Metabolism in Male and Female Rats. San Francisco, CA: American Association for Cancer Research, 2000.
9American Association for Cancer Research. Tea Polyphenols Inhibit Orthotopic Growth and Metastasis of Human Prostate Tumors in Mice. San Francisco, CA: American Association for Cancer Research, 2000.
10American Association for Cancer Research. Polyphenolic Extracts from Black Tea and Wine Protect Against Azoxymethane-induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats. San Francisco, CA: American Association for Cancer Research, 2000.
11American Association for Cancer Research. Effect of Tea and Tea Polyphenols on DNA Adduct Formation of Heterocyclic Amines (HCAS) in F344 Rats and CDF-1 Mice. San Francisco, CA: American Association for Cancer Research, 2000.
12National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Center for Health Statistics: Plan and Operation of the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971–1973. Vital and Health Statistics. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1973.
13National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Center for Health Statistics: Plan and Operation of the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1982–1984. Vital and Health Statistics. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1987.
14National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Center for Health Statistics: Plan and Operation of the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1986. Vital and Health Statistics. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1990.
15National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Center for Health Statistics: Plan and Operation of the NHANES I Augmentation Survey of Adults 25–74 years: United States, 1974–1975. Washington, DC: NCHS, 1978.
16Madans JH, Cox CS, Kleinman JC, Makuc D, Feldman JJ, Finucane FF, et al. 10 years after NHANES I: mortality experience at initial followup, 1982–84. Public Health Rep. 1986; 101(5): 474–81.
17Madans JH, Kleinman JC, Cox CS, Barbano HE, Feldman JJ, Cohen B. et al. 10 years after NHANES I: report of initial followup, 1982–84. Public Health Rep. 1986; 101(5): 465–73.
18Cornoni-Huntley J, Barbano HE, Brody JA, Cohen B, Feldman JJ, Kleinman JC, et al. National health and nutrition examination I – epidemiologic follow-up survey. Public Health Rep. 1983; 98(3): 245–51.
19Ji B, Chow W, Hsing A, McLaughlin J, Dai Q, Gao Y, et al. Green tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Int. J. Cancer 1997; 70(3): 255–8.
20Hartman T, Tangrea J, Pietinen P, Malila N, Virtanen M, Taylor P, et al. Tea and coffee consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in middle-aged Finnish men. Nutr. Cancer 1998; 31(1): 41–8.
21Tavani A, Pregnolato A, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Talamini R, Franceschi S. Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: a study of 3,530 cases and 7,057 controls. Int. J. Cancer 1997; 73(2): 193–7.
22Persson P, Carlsson S, Grill V, Hagman U, Lundgren A, Ostenson C, et al. Food frequency questionnaire versus 7-day weighed dietary record information on dietary fibre and fat intake in middle-aged Swedish men. Scand. J. Social Med. 1998; 26(1): 75–80.
23Brants H, Lowik M, Brussaard J, Kistemaker C, Van Erp-Baart A. Food consumption methods. Development, reproducibility and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for vitamin B6. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 51(Suppl. 3): S12–8.
24Metcalf P, Swinburn B, Scragg R, Dryson E. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in European and Polynesian New Zealanders. Ethnicity Health 1997; 2(4): 278–308.
25Grootenhuis P, Westenbrink S, Sie C, de Neeling J, Kok F, Bouter L. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in epidemiologic research among the elderly: validation by comparison with dietary history. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1995; 48(7): 859–68.
26Yang C, Lee M, Chen L, Yang G. Polyphenols as inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Environ. Health Perspect. 1997; 105(Suppl. 4): 971–6.
27Kohlmeier L, Weterings KG, Steck S, Kok FJ. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature. Nutr. Cancer 1997; 27(1): 1–13.
28Ries L, Kosary C, Hankey B, Miller B, Clegg L, Edwards B. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973–1976. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 1999.
29Dawson D, Archer L. Gender differences in alcohol consumption: effects of measurement. Br. J. Addict. 1992; 87(1): 119–23.
30Shillington A, Clapp J. Self-report stability of adolescent substance use: are there differences for gender, ethnicity and age? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000; 60(1): 19–27.
31Bujanda L. The effects of alcohol consumption upon the gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2000; 95(12): 3374–82.
32Hsing A, McLaughlin J, Chow W, Schuman L, Co Chien H, Gridley G. et al. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in a prospective study among US white men. Int. J. Cancer 1998; 77(4): 549–53.
33Tavani A, Ferraroni M, Mezzetti M, Franceschi S, Lo Re A, La Vecchia C. Alcohol intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum. Nutr. Cancer 1998; 30(3): 213–9.
34Le Marchand L, Wilkens L, Kolonel L, Hankin J, Lyu L. Associations of sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes with the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1997; 57(21): 4787–94.
35Giovannucci E, Colditz G, Stampfer M, Hunter D, Rosner B, Willett W, et al. A prospective study of cigarette smoking and risk of colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer in US women. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1994; 86(3): 192–9.