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Trends of mortality attributable to child and maternal undernutrition, overweight/obesity and dietary risk factors of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990–2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

  • Yohannes Adama Melaku (a1) (a2), Tiffany K Gill (a2), Anne W Taylor (a2), Sarah L Appleton (a3) (a4), David Gonzalez-Chica (a2), Robert Adams (a3), Tom Achoki (a5), Zumin Shi (a2) (a6) and Andre Renzaho (a7) (a8)...

Abstract

Objective

To assess trends of mortality attributable to child and maternal undernutrition (CMU), overweight/obesity and dietary risks of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2015.

Design

For each risk factor, a systematic review of data was used to compute the exposure level and the effect size. A Bayesian hierarchical meta-regression analysis was used to estimate the exposure level of the risk factors by age, sex, geography and year. The burden of all-cause mortality attributable to CMU, fourteen dietary risk factors (eight diets, five nutrients and fibre intake) and overweight/obesity was estimated.

Setting

Sub-Saharan Africa.

Participants

All age groups and both sexes.

Results

In 2015, CMU, overweight/obesity and dietary risks of NCD accounted for 826204 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) 737346, 923789), 266768 (95 % UI 189051, 353096) and 558578 (95 % UI 453433, 680197) deaths, respectively, representing 10·3 % (95 % UI 9·1, 11·6 %), 3·3 % (95 % UI 2·4, 4·4 %) and 7·0 % (95 % UI 5·8, 8·3 %) of all-cause mortality. While the age-standardized proportion of all-cause mortality accounted for by CMU decreased by 55·2 % between 1990 and 2015 in SSA, it increased by 63·3 and 17·2 % for overweight/obesity and dietary risks of NCD, respectively.

Conclusions

The increasing burden of diet- and obesity-related diseases and the reduction of mortality attributable to CMU indicate that SSA is undergoing a rapid nutritional transition. To tackle the impact in SSA, interventions and international development agendas should also target dietary risks associated with NCD and overweight/obesity.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email adamayohannes@gmail.com

References

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