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Use of dietary supplements in pregnant women in relation to sociodemographic factors – a report from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study

  • Carin Andrén Aronsson (a1), Kendra Vehik (a2), Jimin Yang (a2), Ulla Uusitalo (a2), Kristen Hay (a3), Gesa Joslowski (a4), Anne Riikonen (a5), Lori Ballard (a2), Suvi M Virtanen (a5) (a6) and Jill M Norris (a7)...
Abstract
AbstractObjectives

The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and associated factors of dietary supplement use, particularly supplements containing vitamin D and fatty acids, in pregnant women enrolled in a multi-national study.

Design

The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Maternal dietary supplement use was self-reported through questionnaires at month 3 to 4 postpartum.

Setting

Six clinical research centres; three in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland and Germany).

Subjects

Mothers (n 7326) to infants screened for high-risk HLA-DQ genotypes of type 1 diabetes.

Results

Ninety-two per cent of the 7326 women used one or more types of supplement during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplements were taken by 65 % of the women, with the highest proportion of users in the USA (80·5 %). Overall, 16 % of the women reported taking fatty acid supplements and a growing trend was seen in all countries between 2004 and 2010 (P < 0·0001). The use was more common in Germany (32 %) and the USA (24 %) compared with Finland (8·5 %) and Sweden (7·0 %). Being pregnant with the first child was a strong predictor for any supplement use in all countries. Low maternal age (<25 years), higher education, BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2 and smoking during pregnancy were factors associated with supplement use in some but not all countries.

Conclusions

The majority of the women used dietary supplements during pregnancy. The use was associated with sociodemographic and behavioural factors, such as parity, maternal age, education, BMI and maternal smoking.

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Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email carin.andren_aronsson@med.lu.se
Footnotes
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Members of the TEDDY Study Group are listed in Appendix 1.

Footnotes
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. M Haugen , A Brantsæter , J Alexander et al. (2008) Dietary supplements contribute substantially to the total nutrient intake in pregnant Norwegian women. Ann Nutr Metab 52, 272280.

2. D Dror , J King , D Durand et al. (2011) Association of modifiable and nonmodifiable factors with vitamin D status in pregnant women and neonates in Oakland CA. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 111116.

3. A Brantsæter , M Haugen , TA Hagve et al. (2007) Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa). Ann Nutr Metab 51, 146154.

4. LC Stene , J Ulriksen , P Magnus et al. (2000) Use of cod liver oil during pregnancy associated with lower risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Diabetologia 43, 10931098.

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10. M Picciano & M McGuire (2009) Use of dietary supplements by pregnant women and lactating women in North America. Am J Clin Nutr 89, issue 2, 663S667S.

11. R Bailey , J Gahche , C Lentino et al. (2011) Dietary supplement use in the United States, 2003–2006. J Nutr 141, 261266.

13. HK Brekke & J Ludvigsson (2007) Vitamin D supplementation and diabetes related autoimmunity in the ABIS study. Pediatr Diabetes 8, 1114.

15.TEDDY Study Group (2008) The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1150, 113.

16. WA Hagopian , H Erlich , Å Lernmark et al. (2011) The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY): genetic criteria and international diabetes risk screening of 421 000 infants. Pediatr Diabetes 12, 733743.

17.The TEDDY Study Group (2007) The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study: study design. Pediatr Diabetes 8, 286298.

19. S Moyers , R Richesson & J Krischer (2008) Trans-Atlantic data harmonization in the classifications of medicines and dietary supplements: a challenge for epidemiologic study and clinical research. Int J Med Inform 77, 5867.

21. A Burton , S Wilson & AJ Gillies (2001) Folic acid: is self-reported use of supplements accurate? J Epidemiol Community Health 55, 841842.

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24. JA Foote , SP Murphy , L Wilkens et al. (2003) Factors associated with dietary supplement use among healthy adults of five ethnicities. The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol 157, 888897.

26. S Zeisel (2009) Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infants depends on mother's diet. Am J Clin Nutr 89, issue 2, 685S687S.

27. B Koletzko , I Cetin & JT Brenna ; for the Perinatal Lipid Intake Working Group (2007) Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr 98, 873877.

28. SF Olsen , TB Mikkelsen , VK Knudsen et al. (2007) Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 21, 7686.

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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
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