1.Lang F, Busch GL, Ritter Met al. (1998) Functional significance of cell volume regulatory mechanisms. Physiol Rev 78, 247–306.
2.Andrew RD & MacVicar BA (1994) Imaging cell volume changes and neuronal excitation in the hippocampal slice. Neuroscience 62, 371–383.
3.Eilers H & Schumacher MA (2005) Mechanosensitivity of primary afferent nociceptors in the pain pathway. In Mechanosensitivity in Tissues and Cells, pp. 357–370 [A Kamkin and I Kiseleva, editors]. Moscow: Academia; available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7514/
4.Le Bihan D (2007) The ‘wet mind’: water and functional neuroimaging. Phys Med Biol 52, R57–R90.
5.Krause EG, deKloet AD, Flak JNet al. (2011) Hydration state controls stress responsiveness and social behavior. J Neurosci 31, 5470–5476.
6.Yancey PH, Clark ME, Hand SCet al. (1982) Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Science 217, 1214–1222.
7.Haussinger D (2008) Osmosensing and osmosignaling in the liver. Wien Med Wochenschr 158, 549–552.
8.Hernanz-Schulman M, Vanholder R, Waterloos MAet al. (2000) Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response. Pediatr Radiol 30, 361–368.
9.Lancaster MG & Allison F (1966) Studies on the pathogenesis of acute inflammation. VII. The influence of osmolality upon the phagocytic and clumping activity by human leukocytes. Am J Pathol 49, 1185–1200.
10.Berneis K, Ninnis R, Haussinger Det al. (1999) Effects of hyper- and hypoosmolality on whole body protein and glucose kinetics in humans. Am J Physiol 276, E188–E195.
11.Brown CM, Barberini L, Dulloo AGet al. (2005) Cardiovascular responses to water drinking: does osmolality play a role? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R1687–R1692.
12.Capra NF & Ro JY (2004) Human and animal experimental models of acute and chronic muscle pain: intramuscular algesic injection. Pain 110, 3–7.
13.Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Yamamoto LMet al. (2008) Effect of hydration state on resistance exercise-induced endocrine markers of anabolism, catabolism, and metabolism. J Appl Physiol 105, 816–824.
14.Lyall V, Heck GL, DeSimone JAet al. (1999) Effects of osmolarity on taste receptor cell size and function. Am J Physiol 277, C800–C813.
15.Pasantes-Morales H & Tuz K (2006) Volume changes in neurons: hyperexcitability and neuronal death. Contrib Nephrol 152, 221–240.
16.Schliess F & Haussinger D (2003) Cell volume and insulin signaling. Int Rev Cytol 225, 187–228.
17.McKenzie MA, Greenleaf JE, Looft-Wilson Ret al. (1999) Leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, and plasma osmolality during rest and exercise: an hypothesis. J Physiol Pharmacol 50, 259–273.
18.Cheung SS & McLellan TM (1998) Heat acclimation, aerobic fitness, and hydration effects on tolerance during uncompensable heat stress. J Appl Physiol 84, 1731–1739.
19.Ainslie PN, Campbell IT, Frayn KNet al. (2002) Energy balance, metabolism, hydration, and performance during strenuous hill walking: the effect of age. J Appl Physiol 93, 714–723.
20.Sawka MN (1992) Physiological consequences of hypohydration: exercise performance and thermoregulation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24, 657–670.
21.Silnik M (1998) Practical management of diabetic ketoacidosis in childhood and adolescence. Paediatr Suppl 425, 63–66.
22.Trachtman H (1992) Cell volume regulation: a review of cerebral adaptive mechanisms and implications for clinical treatment of osmolal disturbances. Pediatr Nephrol 6, 104–112.
23.Vercellino M, Bezante GP & Balbi M (2009) Contrast medium induced nephropathy: new insights into prevention and risk management. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 7, 166–180.
24.Pier GB (2002) CFTR mutations and host susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Curr Opin Microbiol 5, 81–86.
25.Kuroda T, Harada T, Tsutsumi Het al. (1997) Hypernatremic suppression of neutrophils. Burns 23, 338–340.
26.Platt OS (1982) Exercise-induced hemolysis in sickle cell anemia: shear sensitivity and erythrocyte dehydration. Blood 59, 1055–1060.
27.Tripette J, Loko G, Samb Aet al. (2010) Effects of hydration and dehydration on blood rheology in sickle cell trait carriers during exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299, H908–H914.
28.El-Mougi M, Hendawi A, Koura Het al. (1996) Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption. Bull World Health Organ 74, 471–477.
29.Hahn S, Kim Y & Garner P (2001) Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration due to diarrhoea in children: systematic review. BMJ 323, 81–85.
30.Arora SK (2011) Hypernatremic disorders in the intensive care unit. J Intensive Care Med (Epublication ahead of print version).
31.Alshayeb HM, Showkat A, Babar Fet al. (2011) Severe hypernatremia correction rate and mortality in hospitalized patients. Am J Med Sci 341, 356–360.
32.Stookey JD, Pieper CF & Cohen HJ (2004) Hypertonic hyperglycemia progresses to diabetes faster than normotonic hyperglycemia. Eur J Epidemiol 19, 935–944.
33.Stookey JD, Purser JL, Pieper CFet al. (2004) Plasma hypertonicity: another marker of frailty? J Am Geriatr Soc 52, 1313–1320.
34.Kroke A, Manz F, Kersting Met al. (2004) The DONALD Study. History, current status and future perspectives. Eur J Nutr 43, 45–54.
35.Star RA (1990) Southwestern internal medicine conference: Hyperosmolar states. Am J Med Sci 300, 402–412.
36.Manz F & Wentz A (2003) 24-h hydration status: parameters, epidemiology and recommendations. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 2, S10–S18.
37.JrEdelmann CM, Barnett HL, Stark Het al. (1967) A standardized test of renal concentrating capacity in children. Am J Dis Child 114, 639–644.
38.Manz F, Wentz A & Sichert-Hellert W (2002) The most essential nutrient: defining the adequate intake of water. J Pediatr 141, 587–592.
39.Uttley WS, Paxton J & Thistlethwaite D (1972) Urinary concentrating ability and growth failure in urinary tract disorders. Arch Dis Child 47, 436–441.
40.Bar-David Y, Urkin J & Kozminsky E (2005) The effect of voluntary dehydration on cognitive functions of elementary school children. Acta Paediatr 94, 1667–1673.
41.Bar-David Y, Urkin J, Landau Det al. (2009) Voluntary dehydration among elementary school children residing in a hot arid environment. J Hum Nutr Diet 22, 455–460.
42.Philip M, Chaimovitz C, Singer Aet al. (1993) Urine osmolality in nursery school children in a hot climate. Isr J Med Sci 29, 104–106.
43.Van Hoeck K, Bael A, Lax Het al. (2007) Circadian variation of voided volume in normal school-age children. Eur J Pediatr 166, 579–584.
44.Nose H, Mack GW, Shi XRet al. (1988) Role of osmolality and plasma volume during rehydration in humans. J Appl Physiol 65, 325–331.
45.Merson SJ, Maughan RJ & Shirreffs SM (2008) Rehydration with drinks differing in sodium concentration and recovery from moderate exercise-induced hypohydration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 103, 585–594.
46.Bar David Y, Landau D, Bar David Zet al. (1998) Urine osmolality among elementary school children living in a hot climate: implications for dehydration. Ambul Child Health 4, 393–397.
47.Bar-Or O (2001) Nutritional considerations for the child athlete. Can J Appl Physiol 26, Suppl., S186–S191.
48.D'Anci KE, Constant F & Rosenberg IH (2006) Hydration and cognitive function in children. Nutr Rev 64, 457–464.
49.Stahl A, Kroke A, Bolzenius Ket al. (2007) Relation between hydration status in children and their dietary profile – results from the DONALD study. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 1386–1392.
50.Kant AK & Graubard BI (2010) Contributors of water intake in US children and adolescents: associations with dietary and meal characteristics – National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 887–896.
52.Patel AI, Bogart LM, Uyeda KEet al. (2010) Perceptions about availability and adequacy of drinking water in a large California school district. Prev Chronic Dis 7, A39.
53.Institute of Medicine (2004) Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
54.Bond L, Clements J, Bertalli Net al. (2006) A comparison of self-reported puberty using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a school-based epidemiologic survey. J Adolesc 29, 709–720.
55.Petersen AC, Crockett L, Richards Met al. (1988) A self-report measure of pubertal status: reliability, validity and initial norms. J Youth Adolesc 17, 117–133.
56.Shirtcliff EA, Dahl RE & Pollak SD (2009) Pubertal development: correspondence between hormonal and physical development. Child Dev 80, 327–337.
57.Ikeda Y, Tanaka I, Oki Yet al. (1993) Testosterone normalizes plasma vasopressin response to osmotic stimuli in men with hypogonadism. Endocr J 40, 387–392.
58.Stachenfeld NS (2008) Sex hormone effects on body fluid regulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 36, 152–159.
59.Weston AT, Petosa R & Pate RR (1997) Validation of an instrument for measurement of physical activity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29, 138–143.
60.Welk GJ, Dzewaltowski DA & Hill JL (2004) Comparison of the computerized ACTIVITYGRAM instrument and the previous day physical activity recall for assessing physical activity in children. Res Q Exerc Sport 75, 370–380.
61.Friis-Hansen B (1982) Water – the major nutrient. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 299, 11–16.
62.Guenther PM, Kott PS & Carriquiry AL (1997) Development of an approach for estimating usual nutrient intake distributions at the population level. J Nutr 127, 1106–1112.
63.Mettler S, Rusch C & Colombani PC (2006) Osmolality and pH of sport and other drinks available in Switzerland. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie 54, 92–95.
64.Arieff AI, Guisado R & Lazarowitz VC (1977) Pathophysiology of Hyperosmolar States. Disturbances in Body Fluid Osmolality. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.
65.Schmitt F, Bresson JL, Beressi Net al. (2003) Influence of plasma amino acid level on vasopressin secretion. Diab Metab 29, 352–361.
66.Seifert J, Harmon J & DeClercq P (2006) Protein added to a sports drink improves fluid retention. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16, 420–429.
67.Shirreffs SM, Aragon-Vargas LF, Keil Met al. (2007) Rehydration after exercise in the heat: a comparison of 4 commonly used drinks. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 17, 244–258.
68.Shirreffs SM, Watson P & Maughan RJ (2007) Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink. Br J Nutr 98, 173–180.
69.Vist GE & Maughan RJ (1994) Gastric emptying of ingested solutions in man: effect of beverage glucose concentration. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26, 1269–1273.
70.Vaisman N, Voet H, Akivis Aet al. (1996) Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 150, 1089–1092.
71.Moritz ML (2008) Urine sodium composition in ambulatory healthy children: hypotonic or isotonic? Pediatr Nephrol 23, 955–957.
72.Alfieri RR & Petronini PG (2007) Hyperosmotic stress response: comparison with other cellular stresses. Pflugers Arch 454, 173–185.
73.O'Neill WC (1999) Physiological significance of volume-regulatory transporters. Am J Physiol 276, C995–C1011.