Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 17
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cheng, Tyrone C. and Tang, Ning 2016. SNAP Out of It: A Study of Low-Income Families’ Underutilization of Food Stamps. Journal of Poverty, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 152.

    Liese, Angela D. Draper, Carrie L. Martini, Lauren Bell, Bethany A. Freedman, Darcy A. Burke, Michael P. Younginer, Nicholas Blake, Christine E. Probst, Janice C. and Jones, Sonya J. 2016. Recruitment Strategies and Participation in a Study of Childhood Hunger. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, p. 1.

    Munger, Ashley L. Hofferth, Sandra L. and Grutzmacher, Stephanie K. 2016. The Role of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in the Relationship Between Food Insecurity and Probability of Maternal Depression. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, p. 147.

    Kaiser, Lucia Chaidez, Virginia Algert, Susan Horowitz, Marcel Martin, Anna Mendoza, Concepcion Neelon, Marisa and Ginsburg, David C. 2015. Food Resource Management Education With SNAP Participation Improves Food Security. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Vol. 47, Issue. 4, p. 374.

    Moreno, Jennette P. Vaughan, Elizabeth Hernandez, Daphne Cameron, Ryan T. Foreyt, John P. and Johnston, Craig A. 2015. The Impact of Acculturation Level on Weight Status and Weight Outcomes in Hispanic Children. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities,

    Neter, Judith E Dijkstra, S Coosje Visser, Marjolein and Brouwer, Ingeborg A 2014. Food insecurity among Dutch food bank recipients: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, Vol. 4, Issue. 5, p. e004657.

    Handley, Margaret A. Robles, Marisela Sanford, Eric Collins, Natalie Seligman, Hilary Defries, Triveni Perez, Ramona and Grieshop, Jim 2013. Navigating changing food environments – Transnational perspectives on dietary behaviours and implications for nutrition counselling. Global Public Health, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 245.

    Kilanowski, Jill F. and Lin, Li 2012. Rasch Analysis of US Household Food Security Survey Module in Latino Migrant Farmworkers. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, Vol. 7, Issue. 2-3, p. 178.

    Lind, Catherine Mirchandani, Gita G. Castrucci, Brian C. Chávez, Noel Handler, Arden and Hoelscher, Deanna M. 2012. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005. Journal of School Health, Vol. 82, Issue. 4, p. 166.

    Ramsey, Rebecca Giskes, Katrina Turrell, Gavin and Gallegos, Danielle 2012. Food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas: potential health and dietary consequences. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 15, Issue. 02, p. 227.

    Carter, Kristie N. Kruse, Kerri Blakely, Tony and Collings, Sunny 2011. The association of food security with psychological distress in New Zealand and any gender differences. Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 72, Issue. 9, p. 1463.

    McCurdy, Karen and Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth 2011. Sociodemographic Determinants of Food Security Status Among First-Time WIC Participants. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 216.

    Borre, Kristen Ertle, Luke and Graff, Mariaelisa 2010. Working to eat: Vulnerability, food insecurity, and obesity among migrant and seasonal farmworker families. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 53, Issue. 4, p. 443.

    Carter, Kristie N. Lanumata, Tolotea Kruse, Kerri and Gorton, Delvina 2010. What are the determinants of food insecurity in New Zealand and does this differ for males and females?. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Vol. 34, Issue. 6, p. 602.

    Gorton, Delvina Bullen, Chris R and Mhurchu, Cliona Ni 2010. Environmental influences on food security in high-income countries. Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 68, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Huddleston-Casas, Catherine Charnigo, Richard and Simmons, Leigh Ann 2009. Food insecurity and maternal depression in rural, low-income families: a longitudinal investigation. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 12, Issue. 08, p. 1133.

    Yngve, Agneta 2007. Friends, vouchers, work force and plant foods. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 10, Issue. 06,


Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004

  • Lucia Kaiser (a1), Nikki Baumrind (a2) and Sheila Dumbauld (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2007

To identify factors associated with food insecurity in California women.


The California Women's Health Survey is an ongoing annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Food insecurity of the women was measured by a 6-item subset of the Food Security Module. Statistical procedures included chi-square tests, t-tests, logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance.


California, USA.


Four thousand and thirty-seven women (18 years or older).


Prevalence of food insecurity was 25.7%. After controlling for income, factors associated with greater food insecurity were Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity; less than a 12th grade education; being unmarried; less than 55 years old; being Spanish-speaking; having spent less than half of one's life in the USA; sadness/depression; feeling overwhelmed; poor physical/mental health interfering with activities; and fair to poor general health. Among Food Stamp Program (FSP) participants, 71% were food-insecure. Among FSP-eligible women who had not applied for the programme, the prevalence of food insecurity was lower among women responding that they did not need food stamps than in women giving other reasons for not applying (23.9% vs. 66.9%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with food insecurity in FSP recipients included being unable to make food stamps last for 30 days, feeling overwhelmed, and having a birthplace in Mexico or Central America.


Along with several socio-economic variables, poor physical and mental health is associated with food insecurity. Whether food insecurity is a cause or effect of poor health remains in question.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2KL Radimer . Measurement of household food insecurity in the USA and other industrialized countries. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5(6A): 859–64.

5DH Holben , MC McClincy , JP Holcomb Jr, KL Dean , CE Walker . Food security status of households in Appalachian Ohio with children in Head Start. Journal of American Dietetic Association 2004; 104(2): 238–41.

7A Meyers , D Cutts , DA Frank , S Levenson , A Skalicky , T Heeren , . Subsidized housing and children's nutritional status: data from a multisite surveillance study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2005; 159(6): 551–6.

8SA Quandt , TA Arcury , J Early , J Tapia , JD Davis . Household food security among migrant and seasonal Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Public Health Reports 2004; 119(6): 568–75.

12P Casey , S Goolsby , C Berkowitz , D Frank , J Cook , D Cutts , . Maternal depression, changing public assistance, food security, and child health status. Pediatrics 2004; 113(2): 298304.

13CM Heflin , K Siefert , DR Williams . Food insufficiency and women's mental health: findings from a 3-year panel of welfare recipients. Social Science & Medicine 2005; 61(9): 1971–82.

15AM Pheley , DH Holben , AS Graham , C Simpson . Food security and perceptions of health status: a preliminary study in rural Appalachia. Journal of Rural Health 2002; 18(3): 447–54.

19CM Olson . Food insecurity in women. A recipe for unhealthy trade-offs. Topics in Clinical Nutrition 2005; 20(4): 321–8.

23HR Melgar-Quiñonez , AC Martin , D Metz , A Olivares , LL Kaiser . Inseguridad alimentaria en Latinos de California: observaciones de grupos focales. Salud Pública de México 2003; 45(3): 198205.

24PL Geltman , AF Meyers . Immigration legal status and use of public programs and prenatal care. Journal of Immigrant Health 1999; 1(2): 91–7.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *