Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Koo, H. C. Poh, B. K. and Ruzita, Abd Talib 2016. Intervention on whole grain with healthy balanced diet to manage childhood obesity (GReat-Child™trial): study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial. SpringerPlus, Vol. 5, Issue. 1,

    Funtikova, Anna N. Navarro, Estanislau Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed Fíto, Montserrat and Schröder, Helmut 2015. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Jackson, Jennifer Smit, Ellen Manore, Melinda John, Deborah and Gunter, Katherine 2015. The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children. Nutrients, Vol. 7, Issue. 12, p. 9707.

    Mukherjee, Kakali Biswas, Rajarshi Chaudhary, Sushil K. and Mukherjee, Pulok K. 2015. Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicine.

    Tovar, Alison Choumenkovitch, Silvina F. Hennessy, Erin Boulos, Rebecca Must, Aviva Hughes, Sheryl O. Gute, David M. Vikre, Emily Kuross and Economos, Christina D. 2015. Low demanding parental feeding style is associated with low consumption of whole grains among children of recent immigrants. Appetite, Vol. 95, p. 211.

    Cohen, Juliana F.W. Kraak, Vivica I. Choumenkovitch, Silvina F. Hyatt, Raymond R. and Economos, Christina D. 2014. The CHANGE Study: A Healthy-Lifestyles Intervention to Improve Rural Children's Diet Quality. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 114, Issue. 1, p. 48.

    Cohen, Juliana F. W. Rimm, Eric B. Bryn Austin, S. Hyatt, Raymond R. Kraak, Vivica I. and Economos, Christina D. 2014. A Food Service Intervention Improves Whole Grain Access at Lunch in Rural Elementary Schools. Journal of School Health, Vol. 84, Issue. 3, p. 212.

    Mohamed, Suhaila 2014. Functional foods against metabolic syndrome (obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia) and cardiovasular disease. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 35, Issue. 2, p. 114.

    Reicks, Marla Jonnalagadda, Satya Albertson, Ann M. and Joshi, Nandan 2014. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010. Nutrition Research, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 226.

    Thielecke, Frank and Jonnalagadda, Satya S. 2014. Can Whole Grain Help in Weight Management?. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 48, p. S70.

    Tseng, Marilyn Haapala, Irja Hodge, Allison and Yngve, Agneta 2013. Childhood obesity. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 16, Issue. 02, p. 191.


Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children

  • Silvina F Choumenkovitch (a1), Nicola M McKeown (a2), Alison Tovar (a1), Raymond R Hyatt (a3), Vivica I Kraak (a4), Alia V Hastings (a1), Julia Bloom Herzog (a1) and Christina D Economos (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 16 August 2012

To examine the relationship between intake of whole grains and BMI Z-score in rural children.


General linear models and logistic regression were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between whole grain intake and BMI Z-score, prevalence and odds ratios of overweight and obesity. Dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Screener for ages 2–17 years. Children were classified into three categories according to servings of whole grain intake: <1·0 serving/d, 1·0–1·5 servings/d and >1·5 servings/d.


The CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active and Nurturing Growing-up Environments) study, an obesity prevention intervention in elementary schools in eight rural US communities in California, Mississippi, Kentucky and South Carolina.


Seven hundred and ninety-two children attending 3rd–6th grade.


After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, physical activity and state of residence, whole grain intake was inversely associated with BMI Z-score (0·90 v. 0·61 in the lowest v. the highest whole grain intake category; P trend = 0·01). Children who consumed >1·5 servings of whole grains/d had a 40 % lower risk of being obese (OR = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·95, P = 0·02) compared with children who consumed <1·0 serving/d. Further adjustment for potential dietary predictors of body weight (fruit, vegetable and dairy intakes) did not change the observed associations.


Increasing the intake of whole grains as part of an overall healthy lifestyle may be beneficial for children to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.CL Ogden , SZ Yanovski , MD Carroll et al. (2007) The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology 132, 20872102.

2.CL Ogden , MD Carroll , LR Curtin et al. (2010) Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA 303, 242249.

4.C Tudor-Locke , JJ Kronenfeld , SS Kim et al. (2007) A geographical comparison of prevalence of overweight school-aged children: the National Survey of Children's Health 2003. Pediatrics 120, e1043e1050.

5.MN Lutfiyya , MS Lipsky , J Wisdom-Behounek et al. (2007) Is rural residency a risk factor for overweight and obesity for US children? Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 23482356.

6.MK Serdula , D Ivery , RJ Coates et al. (1993) Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Prev Med 22, 167177.

9.AG Renehan , M Tyson , M Egger et al. (2008) Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 371, 569578.

10.SJ Olshansky , DJ Passaro , RC Hershow et al. (2005) A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 352, 11381145.

15.LM Steffen , DR Jacobs Jr, MA Murtaugh et al. (2003) Whole grain intake is associated with lower body mass and greater insulin sensitivity among adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 158, 243250.

18.CK Good , N Holschuh , AM Albertson et al. (2008) Whole grain consumption and body mass index in adult women: an analysis of NHANES 1999–2000 and the USDA pyramid servings database. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 8087.

19.NM McKeown , M Yoshida , MK Shea et al. (2009) Whole-grain intake and cereal fiber are associated with lower abdominal adiposity in older adults. J Nutr 139, 19501955.

20.LP van de Vijver , LM van den Bosch , PA van den Brandt et al. (2009) Whole-grain consumption, dietary fibre intake and body mass index in the Netherlands cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 3138.

23.DJ Jenkins , V Wesson , TM Wolever et al. (1988) Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycaemic response. BMJ 297, 958960.

28.PK Newby (2009) Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity? Am J Clin Nutr 89, issue 5, 1572S1587S.

29.CD Economos , RR Hyatt , JP Goldberg et al. (2007) A community intervention reduces BMI z-score in children: Shape Up Somerville first year results. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 13251336.

33.SE Barlow (2007) Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics 120, Suppl. 4, S164S192.

35.KW Cullen , K Watson & I Zakeri (2008) Relative reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among youth aged 10 to 17 years. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 862866.

36.M Murashima , SL Hoerr , SO Hughes et al. (2011) Confirmatory factor analysis of a questionnaire measuring control in parental feeding practices in mothers of Head Start children. Appetite 56, 594601.

37.JN Davis , EE Ventura , LT Cook et al. (2011) LA Sprouts: a gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention for Latino youth improves diet and reduces obesity. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 12241230.

41.L Harnack , SA Walters & DR Jacobs Jr (2003) Dietary intake and food sources of whole grains among US children and adolescents: data from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 10151019.

43.SS Jonnalagadda , L Harnack , RH Liu et al. (2011) Putting the whole grain puzzle together: health benefits associated with whole grains – summary of American Society for Nutrition 2010 Satellite Symposium. J Nutr 141, issue 5, 1011S1022S.

44.G Cheng , N Karaolis-Danckert , L Libuda et al. (2009) Relation of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber and whole-grain intakes during puberty to the concurrent development of percent body fat and body mass index. Am J Epidemiol 169, 667677.

45.JN Davis , KE Alexander , EE Ventura et al. (2009) Inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 11601166.

46.M Zanovec , CE O'Neil , SS Cho et al. (2010) Relationship between whole grain and fiber consumption and body weight measures among 6- to 18-year-olds. J Pediatr 157, 578583.

47.NC Howarth , E Saltzman & SB Roberts (2001) Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 59, 129139.

49.JA Marlett , MI McBurney & JL Slavin (2002) Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 9931000.

51.EA Lundin , JX Zhang , D Lairon et al. (2004) Effects of meal frequency and high-fibre rye-bread diet on glucose and lipid metabolism and ileal excretion of energy and sterols in ileostomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 14101419.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *