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To analyse (i) differences in beverage pattern among Norwegian children in 2001 and 2008; (ii) beverage intake related to gender, parental education and family composition; and (iii) potential disparities in time trends among the different groups.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, 6th and 7th grade pupils filled in a questionnaire about frequency of beverage intake (times/week) in 2001 and 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
In 2001 a total of 1488 and in 2008 1339 pupils participated.
Between 2001 and 2008, a decreased consumption frequency of juice (from 3·6 to 3·4 times/week, P = 0·012), lemonade (from 4·8 to 2·5 times/week, P < 0·001) and regular soft drinks (from 2·7 to 1·6 times/week, P < 0·001), but an increased consumption frequency of diet soft drinks (from 1·2 to 1·6 times/week, P < 0·001), were observed. From 2001 to 2008, boys increased their frequency of juice consumption (from 3·1 to 3·3 times/week) whereas girls decreased their frequency of juice consumption (3·8 to 3·4 times/week; interaction time × gender P = 0·02). Children with higher educated parents increased their frequency of juice consumption (3·6 to 3·8 times/week) whereas those with lower educated parents decreased their frequency of juice consumption (3·3 to 3·0 times/week; interaction time × parental education P = 0·04).
A lower frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was observed among pupils in 2008 than in 2001. This is in accordance with the Norwegian health authority's goals and strategies for this time period, and is an important step to improve the dietary health of adolescents.
To describe the worldwide implementation of the WHO Child Growth Standards (‘WHO standards’).
A questionnaire on the adoption of the WHO standards was sent to health authorities. The questions concerned anthropometric indicators adopted, newly introduced indicators, age range, use of sex-specific charts, previously used references, classification system, activities undertaken to roll out the standards and reasons for non-adoption.
Two hundred and nineteen countries and territories.
By April 2011, 125 countries had adopted the WHO standards, another twenty-five were considering their adoption and thirty had not adopted them. Preference for local references was the main reason for non-adoption. Weight-for-age was adopted almost universally, followed by length/height-for-age (104 countries) and weight-for-length/height (eighty-eight countries). Several countries (thirty-six) reported newly introducing BMI-for-age. Most countries opted for sex-specific charts and the Z-score classification. Many redesigned their child health records and updated recommendations on infant feeding, immunization and other health messages. About two-thirds reported incorporating the standards into pre-service training. Other activities ranged from incorporating the standards into computerized information systems, to providing supplies of anthropometric equipment and mobilizing resources for the standards’ roll-out.
Five years after their release, the WHO standards have been widely scrutinized and implemented. Countries have adopted and harmonized best practices in child growth assessment and established the breast-fed infant as the norm against which to assess compliance with children's right to achieve their full genetic growth potential.