Warren, Emile de Lafontaine, Guillaume Gérardi, Sébastien Senneville, Sauphie Beaulieu, Jean Perron, Martin Jaramillo-Correa, Juan Pablo and Bousquet, Jean 2016. Joint inferences from cytoplasmic DNA and fossil data provide evidence for glacial vicariance and contrasted post-glacial dynamics in tamarack, a transcontinental conifer. Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 43, Issue. 6, p. 1227.
Cinget, Benjamin Gérardi, Sébastien Beaulieu, Jean Bousquet, Jean and Chiang, Tzen-Yuh 2015. Less Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow for More Signatures of Glacial Lineages: Congruent Evidence from Balsam Fir cpDNA and mtDNA for Multiple Refugia in Eastern and Central North America. PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. e0122815.
Birks, H. John B. 2014. A diverse scientific life. Journal of Paleolimnology, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 113.
Birks, H. John B. 2014. Challenges in the presentation and analysis of plant-macrofossil stratigraphical data. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 309.
Birks, Hilary H. and Birks, H. John B. 2014. To what extent did changes in July temperature influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 106, p. 262.
Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt Rasmussen, Peter Noe-Nygaard, Nanna Clarke, Annemarie L. Vinebrooke, Rolf D. and Olsen, Jesper 2010. Multiproxy evidence for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses during the 8.2 ka cold event as recorded at Højby Sø, Denmark. Quaternary Research, Vol. 73, Issue. 03, p. 485.
Paus, Aage 2010. Late Weichselian vegetation, climate, and floral migration at Liastemmen, North Rogaland, south-western Norway. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. 223.
BENNETT, KEITH DAVID 2008. Coherent slumping of early postglacial lake sediments at Hall Lake, Ontario, Canada. Boreas, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 209.
BJUNE, ANNE E. and BIRKS, H. J. B. 2008. Holocene vegetation dynamics and inferred climate changes at Svanåvatnet, Mo i Rana, northern Norway. Boreas, Vol. 37, Issue. 1, p. 146.
CLAYTON, LEE ATTIG, JOHN W. and MICKELSON, DAVID M. 2008. Effects of late Pleistocene permafrost on the landscape of Wisconsin, USA. Boreas, Vol. 30, Issue. 3, p. 173.
Giesecke, Thomas and Fontana, Sonia L. 2008. Revisiting pollen accumulation rates from Swedish lake sediments. The Holocene, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 293.
PAUS, AAGE 2008. Late Weichselian vegetation, climate, and floral migration at Sandvikvatn, North Rogaland, southwestern Norway. Boreas, Vol. 17, Issue. 1, p. 113.
RICHARD, PIERRE J. H. BOUCHARD, MICHEL A. and GANGLOFF, PIERRE 2008. The significance of pollen-rich inorganic lake sediments in the Cratére du Nouveau-Quèbec area, Ungava, Canada. Boreas, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 135.
Hill, Christopher L. 2007. Geoarchaeology and late glacial landscapes in the western lake superior region, Central North America. Geoarchaeology, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 15.
Kelsey, Harvey M. Nelson, Alan R. Hemphill-Haley, Eileen and Witter, Robert C. 2005. Tsunami history of an Oregon coastal lake reveals a 4600 yr record of great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 117, Issue. 7, p. 1009.
Kultti, Seija Väliranta, Minna Sarmaja-Korjonen, Kaarina Solovieva, Nadia Virtanen, Tarmo Kauppila, Tommi and Eronen, Matti 2003. Palaeoecological evidence of changes in vegetation and climate during the Holocene in the pre-Polar Urals, northeast European Russia. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol. 18, Issue. 6, p. 503.
Walter, R. and Epperson, B. K. 2001. Geographic pattern of genetic variation in Pinus resinosa: area of greatest diversity is not the origin of postglacial populations. Molecular Ecology, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 103.
Yu, Zicheng and Wright, H.E. 2001. Response of interior North America to abrupt climate oscillations in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation. Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 52, Issue. 4, p. 333.
Baker, R.G. Mason, J.A. and Maher, L.J. 1999. Petaloid Organs Preserved in an Arctic Plant Macrofossil Assemblage from Full-Glacial Sediments in Southeastern Minnesota. Quaternary Research, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 388.
Maher, Louis J. Miller, Norton G. Baker, Richard G. Curry, B.Brandon and Mickelson, David M. 1998. Paleobiology of the Sand Beneath the Valders Diamicton at Valders, Wisconsin. Quaternary Research, Vol. 49, Issue. 02, p. 208.
Kylen Lake, located within the Toimi drumlin field, is critically positioned in relation to Late Wisconsin glacial advances, for it lies between the areas covered by the Superior and St. Louis glacial lobes between 12,000 and 16,000 yr B.P. The pollen and plant-macrofossil record suggests the presence of open species-rich “tundra barrens” from 13,600 to 15,850 yr B.P. Small changes in percentages of Artemisia pollen between 14,300 and 13,600 yr B.P. appear to be artifacts of pollen-percentage data. Shrub-tundra with dwarf birch, willow, and Rhododendron lapponicum developed between 13,600 and 12,000 yr B.P. Black and white spruce and tamarack then expanded to form a vegetation not dissimilar to that of the modern forest-tundra ecotone of northern Canada. At 10,700 B.P. spruce and jack pine increased to form a mosaic dominated by jack pine and white spruce on dry sites and black spruce, tamarack, and deciduous trees such as elm and ash on moist fertile sites. At 9250 yr B.P. red pine and paper birch became dominant to form a vegetation that may have resembled the dry northern forests of Wisconsin today. The diagram terminates at 8410 ± 85 yr B.P. Climatic interpretation of this vegetational succession suggests a progressive increase in temperature since 14,300 yr B.P. This unidirectional trend in climate contrasts with the glacial history of the area. Hypotheses are presented to explain this lack of correspondence between pollen stratigraphy and glacial history. The preferred hypothesis is that the ice-margin fluctuations were controlled primarily by changes in winter snow accumulation in the source area of the glacier, whereas the vegetation and hence the pollen stratigraphy were controlled by climatic changes in front of the ice margin.
Contribution No. 224, Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota.
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