Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Full-Glacial Forests of Central and Southeastern Europe

  • Katherine J. Willis (a1), Edina Rudner (a2) and Pal Sümegi (a2)

The presence of trees in central and southern Europe during the last full-glaciation has long been a matter of debate. A low but persistent presence of fossil tree pollen in central and southern European full-glacial paleoecological sequences has been interpreted either as representing long-distance pollen transport from southerly refuges or as representing in situ refugial populations. Here we present macroscopic charcoal results from 31 sequences located throughout Hungary that provide unequivocal evidence for the presence of at least seven different tree types between approximately 32,500 and 16,500 14C yr B.P. This evidence is presented in conjunction with molluscan and pollen analyses to indicate that during the last full-glaciation, trees grew as far north as Hungary, probably in microenvironmentally favorable sites. These areas provided an important cold-stage refugium for the European flora and fauna.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

K.D. Bennett , P.C. Tzedakis , K.J. Willis , (1991). Quaternary refugia of north European trees.. Journal of Biogeography 18, 103115.

G. Bond , W.S. Broecker , S. Johnsen , J. McManus , L. Labeyrie , J. Jouzel , G. Bonani , (1993). Correlations between climate records from the North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice.. Nature 365, 143147.

J.S. Clark , (1988). Particle motion and the theory of charcoal analysis: Source area, transport, deposition and sampling.. Quaternary Research 30, 6780.

I. Figueiral , (1995). Charcoal analysis and the history of Pinus pinaster (cluster pine) in Portugal.. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 89, 441454.

S. Hicks , (1985). Modern pollen deposition records from Kuusamo, Finland. Seasonal and annual variation.. Grana 24, 167184.

S.J. Johnsen , H.B. Clausen , W. Dansgaard , K. Fuher , N. Gundestrup , C.U. Hammer , P. Iversen , J. Jouzel , B. Stauffer , J.P. Steffensen , (1992). Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core.. Nature 359, 311313.

L. Kordos , (1987). Climatostratigraphy of Upper Pleistocene vertebrates and the conditions of loess formation in Hungary.. Geojournal 15, 163166.

E. Krolopp , P. Sümegi , (1995). Paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene, based on loess malacofauna in Hungary.. Geojournal 36, 213222.

J.F. Kutzbach , P.J. Guetter , (1986). The influence of changing orbital parameters and surface boundary conditions on climate simulations for the past 18,000 years.. Journal of Atmospheric Science 43, 17261759.

C. Laj , A. Mazaud , J.C. Duplessy , (1996). Geomagnetic intensity and 14C abundance in the atmosphere and ocean during the past 50 kyr.. Geophysical Research Letters 23, 20452048.

D. Magri , (1989). Interpreting long-term exponential growth of plant populations in a 250,000-year pollen record from Valle di Castiglione (Roma).. New Phytologist 112, 123128.

D. Magri , (1994). Late-Quaternary changes in plant biomass as recorded by pollen-stratigraphical data: A discussion of the problem at Valle di Castiglione, Italy.. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 81, 313325.

G.P. Marziani , A. Iannone , G. Patrignani , A. Schiattareggia , (1991). Reconstruction of the tree vegetation near a Bronze Age site in Northern Italy based on the analysis of charcoal fragments.. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 70, 214246.

N. Nikolov , H. Helmisaari , (1992). Silvics of the circumpolar boreal forest tree species.. H.H. Shugart , R. Leemans , G.B. Bonan , A Systems Analysis of the Global Boreal Forest Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.1385.

J. Pastor , D.J. Mladenoff , (1992). The southern boreal-northern hardwood forest border.. H.H. Shugart , R. Leemans , G.B. Bonan , A Systems Analysis of the Global Boreal Forest Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.216240.

P.M. Sander , C.T. Gee , (1990). Fossil charcoal: Techniques and applications.. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 63, 269279.

B.W. Sparks , (1964). Non-marine mollusca and Quaternary ecology.. Journal of Animal Ecology 33, 8798.

M. Stuiver , P.J. Reimer , (1993). Extended 14C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 14C age calibration program.. Radiocarbon 35, 215230.

P.C. Tzedakis , (1993). Long-term tree populations in northwest Greece in response to Quaternary climatic cycles.. Nature 364, 437440.

T. van Andel , (1998). Middle and Upper Paleolithic environments and the calibration of 14C dates beyond 10,000 B.P.. Antiquity 72, 2633.

J.-L. Vernet , S. Thiebault , (1987). An approach to the northwestern Mediterranean recent prehistoric vegetation and ecological implications.. Journal of Biogeography 14, 117127.

I.C. Vogel , H.I. Waterbolk , (1964). Groningen radiocarbon dates V.. Radiocarbon 6, 349369.

C. Whitlock , S.H. Millspaugh , (1996). Testing the assumptions of fire-history studies: An examination of modern charcoal accumulation in Yellowstone National Park, USA.. The Holocene 6, 715.

K.J. Willis , (1992). The late Quaternary vegetational history of northwest Greece. III. A comparative study of two contrasting sites.. New Phytologist 121, 139155.

K.J. Willis , (1994). The vegetational history of the Balkans.. Quaternary Science Reviews 13, 769788.

K.J. Willis , (1994). Altitudinal variation in the late Quaternary vegetational history of northwest Greece.. Historical Biology 9, 103116.

K.J. Willis , M. Braun , P. Sümegi , A. Tóth , (1997). Does soil change cause vegetation change or vice versa? A temporal perspective from Hungary.. Ecology 78, 740750.

K.J. Willis , P. Sümegi , M. Braun , K.D. Bennett , A. Tóth , (1998). Prehistoric land degradation in Hungary: Who, how and why.. Antiquity 72, 101113.

K.J. Willis , P. Sümegi , M. Braun , A. Tóth , (1995). The late Quaternary environmental history of Bàtorliget, N.E. Hungary.. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 118, 2547.

G. Woillard , (1979). Grand Pile peat bog: A continuous pollen record for the last 140,000 years.. Quaternary Research 9, 121.

H.E. Wright , (1967). A square rod piston sampler for lake sediments.. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 37, 975976.

O. Zackrisson , M. Nilsson , D. Wardle , (1996). Key ecological function of charcoal from wildfire in the boreal forest.. Oikos 77, 1019.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 140 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 24th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.