Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Historic Eruptions of Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883), and Agung (1963), their Stratospheric Aerosols, and Climatic Impact

  • Michael R. Rampino (a1) and Stephen Self (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

Decreases in surface temperatures after the eruptions of Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883), and Agung (1963) were of similar magnitude, even though the amount of material (dust and volatiles) injected into the stratosphere by these three events differed greatly. Large amounts of fine ash and volatiles were dispersed into the upper atmosphere by Krakatau and Tambora; the Agung eruption in 1963 was a much smaller, vulcanian-type eruption which injected dust and volatiles into the stratospheric aerosol layer more directly. Analyses of magmatic volatiles indicate that the Agung eruption was proportionately richer in SO2 and Cl than either Tambora or Krakatau. Relative amounts of fine ash produced by the Tambora, Krakatau, and Agung eruptions are estimated at about 150:20:1, whereas the masses of atmospheric sulfate aerosols produced were on the order of 7.5:3:1.

Decreases in surface temperature of a few tenths of a degree C for several years following volcanic eruptions are primarily a result of the sulfate aerosols, rather than of the silicate dust. The similarity in the atmospheric response after these three eruptions supports the idea of limiting mechanisms on volcanic stratospheric-aerosol loading, which is suggested by microphysical processes of aerosol particles. Fluctuations in stratospheric aerosol optical depth seem to be controlled to a large degree by high-intensity sulfur-rich eruptions (e.g., Agung, 1963), which may however be relatively small in total ejecta volume. Such eruptions leave little geologic record, but appear as acidity peaks in polar ice cores.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

L.W. Alvarez W. Alvarez F. Asaro H.V. Michel (1980). Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction. Science 208. 10951108.

A.T. Anderson (1974). Chlorine, sulfur and water in magmas and oceans. Geological Society of America Bulletin 85. 14851492.

J.K. Angell J. Korshover (1975). Estimate of the global change in tropospheric temperature between 1958 and 1973. Monthly Weather Reviews 103. 10071012.

J.K. Angell J. Korshover (1977). Estimate of the global change in temperature, surface to 100 mb, between 1958 and 1975. Monthly Weather Reviews 105. 375385.

B. Baldwin J.B. Pollack A. Summers O.B. Toon C. Sagan W. Van Camp (1976). Stratospheric aerosols and climate change. Nature (London) 263. 551555.

R.S. Bradley J. England (1978). Influence of volcanic dust on glacier mass balance at high latitudes. Nature (London) 271. 736738.

J.R. Bray (1974). Volcanism and glaciation during the past 40 millennia. Nature (London) 252. 679680.

J.R. Bray (1977). Pleistocene volcanism and glacial initiation. Science 197. 251254.

R.A. Bryson B.M. Goodman (1980). Volcanic activity and climatic changes. Science 207. 10411044.

R.D. Cadle C.S. Kiang J.-F. Louis (1976). The global scale dispersion of the eruption clouds from major volcanic eruptions. Journal of Geophysical Research 81. 31253132.

R.D. Cadle A.L. Lazrus B.J. Hubert (1979). Atmospheric implications of studies of Central American volcanic eruption clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research 84. 69616968.

A.W. Castleman Jr., H.R. Munkelwitz B. Manowitz (1974). Isotopic studies of the sulfur component of the stratospheric aerosol layer. Tellus 26. 222234.

D. Deirmendjian (1973). On volcanic and other particulate turbidity anomalies. Advances in Geophysics 16. 267296.

A.J. Dyer B.B. Hicks (1968). Global spread of volcanic dust from the Bali eruption of 1963. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 94. 545554.

J.A. Eddy (1976). The Maunder Minimum. Science 192. 11891202.

J.C. Eichelberger H.R. Westrich (1981). Magmatic volatiles in explosive rhyolitic eruptions. Geophysical Research Letters 8. 757760.

H.W. Ellsaesser (1977). Comments on “Estimate of the global change in temperature, surface to 100 mb, between 1958 and 1975”. Monthly Weather Reviews 105. 12001201.

N.H. Farlow V.R. Oberbeck K.G. Snetsinger G.J. Ferry G. Polkowski D.M. Hayes (1981). Size distributions and mineralogy of ash particles in the stratosphere from eruptions of Mount St. Helens. Science 211. 832834.

J. Gentilli (1948). Present-day volcanicity and climatic change. Geological Magazine 85. 172175.

C.U. Hammer H.B. Clausen W. Dansgaard (1980). Greenland ice sheet evidence of post-glacial volcanism and its climatic impact. Nature (London) 288. 230235.

P. Hamill O.B. Toon C.S. Kiang (1977). Microphysical processes affecting stratospheric aerosol particles. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 34. 11041119.

J.E. Hansen W.C. Wang A.A. Lacis (1978). Mount Agung eruption provides test of a global climatic perturbation. Science 199. 10651068.

D.R. Haughton P.L. Roeder B.J. Skinner (1974). Solubility of sulphur in mafic magmas. Economic Geology 69. 451467.

D.V. Hoyt (1978). An explosive eruption in the Southern Hemisphere in 1928. Nature (London) 275. 630632.

B.G. Hunt (1977). A simulation of the possible consequences of a volcanic eruption on the general circulation of the atmosphere. Monthly Weather Reviews 105. 247260.

D.M. Hunten (1975). Residence times of aerosols and gases in the stratosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 2. 2628.

J.P. Kennett R.C. Thunell (1975). Global increase in Quaternary explosive volcanism. Science 187. 497503.

G.J. Kukla H.J. Kukla (1974). Increased surface albedo in the northern hemisphere. Science 183. 709714.

P.R. Kyle (1977). Mineralogy and glass chemistry of recent volcanic ejecta from Mt. Erebus, Ross Island Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 20. 11231146.

H.H. Lamb (1970). Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with its chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 266. 425533.

H.E. Landsberg J.M. Albert (1974). The summer of 1816 and volcanism. Weatherwise 27. 6366.

A.L. Lazrus R.D. Cadle R.W. Gandrud J.P. Greenburg B.J. Hubert W.I. Rose Jr.. (1979). Trace chemistry of the stratosphere and of volcanic eruption plumes. Journal of Geophysical Research 84. 78697875.

G. Manley (1974). Central England temperatures: Monthly means 1659–1973. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 100. 389405.

C. Mass S.H. Schneider (1978). Statistical evidence on the influence of sunspots and volcanic dust on long-term temperature records. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 34. 19952008.

R.M. McInturff A.J. Miller J.K. Angell J. Korshover (1971). Possible effects on the stratosphere of the 1963 Mt. Agung eruption. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 28. 13041307.

A.B. Meinel M.P. Meinel (1964). Height of the glow stratum from the eruption of Agung on Bali. Nature (London) 201. 657658.

B.G. Mendonca K.J. Hanson J.J. DeLuisi (1978). Volcanically related secular trends in atmospheric transmission at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Science 202. 513515.

M.K. Miles (1978). Predicting temperature trend in the Northern Hemisphere to the 2000year Nature (London) 276. 356359.

S.C. Mossop (1964). Volcanic dust collected at an altitude of 20 km. Nature (London) 203. 824827.

S.C. Mossop (1965). Stratospheric particles at 20 km altitude. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 29. 201207.

P.J. Murrow W.I. Rose Jr., S. Self (1980). Determination of the total grain size distribution in a vulcanian eruption column, and its implications to stratiospheric aerosol perturbation. Geophysical Research Letters 7. 893896.

R.E. Newell (1970). Stratospheric temperature change from the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption of 1963. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 27. 977978.

R.E. Newell B.C. Weare (1976). Factors governing tropospheric mean temperature. Science 194. 14131414.

G.G. Newhall S. Self (1982). The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): An estimate of explosive magnitude of historic eruptions. Journal of Geophysical Research 87. 12311238.

D. Ninkovich W.L. Donn (1976). Explosive Cenozoic volcanism and climatic implications. Science 194. 899906.

D. Ninkovich R.S.J. Sparks M.T. Ledbetter (1978). The exceptional magnitude and intensity of the Toba eruption, Sumatra: An example of the use of deep-sea tephra layers as a geological tool. Bulletin Volcanologique 41 No. 3 113.

R.C. Oliver (1976). On the response of hemispheric mean temperature to stratospheric dust: An empirical approach. Journal of Applied Meterology 15. 933950.

J.B. Pollack O.B. Toon C. Sagan A. Summers B. Baldwin W. Van Camp (1976). Volcanic explosions and climatic change: A theoretical assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research 81. 10711083.

S.C. Porter (1981). Recent glacier variations and volcanic eruptions. Nature (London) 291. 139142.

M.R. Rampino S. Self R.W. Fairbridge (1979). Can rapid climatic change cause volcanic eruptions?. Science 206. 826829.

A. Robock (1981). The Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption of 18 May 1980: Minimal climatic effect. Science 212. 13831384.

W.I. Rose (1977). Scavenging of volcanic aerosol by ash: Atmospheric and volcanologic implications. Geology 5. 621624.

P.O. Rosin E. Rammler (1934). Die Kornzusammensetzung des Mahlgutes im Lichte der Wahrscheinlich Keitslehre. Kolloid Zeitschrift 67. 1626.

W.B. Rossow (1978). Cloud microphysics: Analysis of the clouds of Earth, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Icarus 36. 150.

S. Self M.R. Rampino (1981). The 1883 eruption of Krakatau. Nature (London) 294. 699704.

S. Self M.R. Rampino J.J. Barbera (1981). The possible effects of large 19th and 20th century volcanic eruptions on zonal and hemispheric surface temperatures. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 11. 4160.

R.S.J. Sparks G.P.L. Walker (1977). The significance of vitric-enriched air-fall ashes associated with crystal-enriched ignimbrites. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 2. 329341.

J.G. Sparrow (1971). Stratospheric properties and Bali dust. Nature (London) 229. 107.

O.B. Toon R.P. Turco R. Whitten P. Hamill (1981). Implications of stratospheric aerosol measurements for models of aerosol formation and evolution. Geophysical Research Letters 8. 2325.

R.D.M. Verbeek (1884). The Krakatau eruption. Nature (London) 30. 1015.

F.E. Volz (1970). Atmospheric turbidity after the Agung eruption of 1963 and size distribution of the volcanic aerosol. Journal of Geophysical Research 75. 51855194.

G.P.L. Walker (1979). A volcanic ash generated by explosions where ignimbrite entered the sea. Nature (London) 281. 642646.

G.P.L. Walker (1981). Generation and dispersal of fine ash and dust by volcanic eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 11. 8192.

M.T. Zen D. Hadikusumo (1965). Preliminary report on the 1963 eruption of Mt. Agung in Bali (Indonesia). Bulletin Volcanologique 27. 269299.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 153 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 17th August 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.