Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Holocene Paleoclimates of Southern Arabia from Lacustrine Deposits of the Dhamar Highlands, Yemen

Abstract
Abstract

This paper presents new evidence from the Dhamar highlands, Yemen, of paleohydrologic response to fluctuations in Holocene climate. Stratigraphic, geochemical, and chronological analyses of highland peat and lacustrine deposits contribute to knowledge of the timing of early Holocene moisture changes on the Arabian Peninsula, providing a backdrop to understanding early cultural development in the Arabian highlands. The location of the Dhamar highlands, characterized by intermontane valleys surrounded by the highest mountains on the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent to the Indian Ocean is ideal for examining the influence of the Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) on the moisture history of this region. Fluctuations in the lacustrine and paleosol records of the Dhamar highlands reflect both local changes in paleohydrology and regional influences on the Holocene paleoclimatic conditions in southwest Arabia. In addition, a peat deposit with a radiocarbon age of 10,253 ± 10,560 cal yr BP documents some of the earliest Holocene high moisture conditions on the Arabian Peninsula.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Fax: +1 816 235 5535. E-mail address: daviesc@umkc.edu
References
Hide All
K.A. Bard , M. Coltorti , D.C. Diblasi , F. Dramis , and R. Fattovich The environmental history of Tigray (northern Ethiopia) in the middle and late Holocene: a preliminary outline. African Archaeological Review 17, (2000). 6586.

G. Bond , W. Showers , M. Cheseby , R. Lotti , P. Almasi , P. deMenocal , P. Priore , H. Cullen , I. Hajdas , and G. Bonani A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in north Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science 278, (1997). 12571266.

R. Bookman , Y. Enzel , A. Agnon , and M. Stein Late Holocene lake levels of the Dead Sea. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116, (2004). 555571.

S.J. Burns , D. Fleitmann , A. Matter , U. Neff , and A. Mangini Speleothem evidence from Oman for continental pluvial events during interglacial periods. Geology 29, (1998). 623626.

H. Cullen , A. Kaplan , P. Arkin , and P. deMenocal Impact of the North Atlantic oscillation on Middle Eastern climate and streamflow. Climate Change 55, (2002). 315338.

P. DeMenocal , J. Ortiz , T. Guilderson , M. Sarnthein , L. Baker , and M. Yarunsinsky Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid period: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, (2000). 347361.

C. Edens , and T.J. Wilkinson Southwest Arabia during the Holocene: recent archaeological developments. Journal of World Prehistory 12, (1998). 55119.

H.A. el-Nakhal The Pleistocene cold episode in the Republic of Yemen. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology 100, (1993). 303307.

Y. Enzel , R. Ken-Tor , D. Sharon , M. Stein , H. Gvirtzman , and U. Dayan Late Holocene climates of the Near East deduced from Dead Sea level variations and modern regional winter rainfall. Quaternary Research 60, (2003). 263273.

D. Fleitmann , S.J. Burns , M. Mudelsee , U. Neff , J. Kramers , A. Mangini , and A. Matter Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalactite from Southern Oman. Science 300, (2003). 17371739.

F. Gasse , and E. van Campo Abrupt post-glacial climate events in West Asian and North Africa monsoon domains. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 126, (1994). 435456.

A. Gupta , D.M. Anderson , and J.T. Overpeck Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic ocean. Nature 421, (2003). 354356.

M.N. Machette Calcic soils of the Southwestern United States. Geological Society of America Special Paper 203, (1985). 121.

H.A. McClure Radiocarbon chronology of late Quaternary lakes in the Arabian Desert. Nature 263, (1976). 755

J. McCorriston Early settlement in Hadramawt: preliminary report on prehistoric occupation at Shi'b Munayder. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 11, (2000). 129153.

U. Neff , S.J. Burns , M. Mudelsee , D. Fleitmann , and A. Matter Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6 kyr ago. Nature 411, (2001). 290293.

A.G. Parker , L. Eckersley , M.M. Smith , A.S. Goudie , S. Stokes , K. White , and M.J. Hodson Holocene vegetation dynamics in the northeastern Rub' al-Khali desert, Arabian Peninsula: a pollen, phytolith and carbon isotope study. Journal of Quaternary Science 19, (2004). 665676.

J.S. Pigati , J. Quade , T.M. Shahanan , C.V. Haynes Jr. Radiocarbon dating of minute gastropods and new constraints on the timing of late Quaternary spring-discharge deposits in Southern Arizona. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 204, (2004). 3345.

G. Singh , R.D. Joshi , S.K. Chopra , and A.B. Singh Late Quaternary history of vegetation and climate of the Rajasthan desert, India. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 267, (1974). 467501.

G. Singh , R.J. Wasson , and D.P. Agrawal Vegetational and seasonal climatic changes since the last full glacial in the Thar Desert, northwestern India. Reviews of Palaeobotany and Palynology 64, (1990). 351358.

F. Sirocko , M. Arnold , J.C. Duplessy , M. Sarnthein , H. Erlenkeuser , and H. Lange Century-scale events in monsoonal climate over the past 24,000 years. Nature 364, (1993). 322324.

F. Sirocko , D. Garbe-Schonberg , and C. Devey Processes controlling trace element geochemistry of Arabian Sea sediments during the last 25,000 years. Global and Planetary Change 26, (2002). 217303.

G.A. Spiers , M.J. Dudas , and L.W. Hodgins Simultaneous multielement analysis of clays by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy using suspension aspiration. Clays and Clay Minerals 31, (1983). 397400.

R.J. Sporry Groundwater exploration on the mountain plains of Dhamar and Rada in the Yemen Arabic Republic. Geoexploration 27, (1991). 135164.

M. Staubwasser , F. Sirocko , P.M. Grootes , and H. Erlenkeuser South Asian monsoon climate change and radiocarbon in the Arabian Sea during the early and mid Holocene. Paleoceanography 17, (2002). 1063

M. Staubwasser , F. Sirocko , P.M. Grootes , and M. Segl Climate change at the 4.2 ka B.P. termination of the Indus valley civilization and Holocene South Asian monsoon variability. Geophysical Research Letters 30, (2003). 1425

M. Stuiver , E. Bard , J.W. Beck , G.S. Burr , K.A. Hughen , B. Kromer , F.G. McCormac , J.V.D. Plicht , and M. Spurk INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000-0 cal BP. Radiocarbon 40, (1998). 10411083.

H. Weiss , and R.S. Bradley What drives societal collapse?. Science 291, (2001). 609610.

T.J. Wilkinson Holocene environments of the high plateau Yemen: recent geoarchaeological investigations. Geoarchaeology 12, (1997). 833864.

T.J. Wilkinson , C. Edens , and M. Gibson The archaeology of the Yemen high plains: a preliminary chronology. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 8, (1997). 99142.

M.A.J. Williams , F.A. Street , and F.M. Dakin Fossil periglacial deposits in the Semien highlands, Ethiopia. Erdkunde 32, (1978). 4046.

K.A.F. Zonneveld , G. Ganssen , S. Troelstra , G. Versteegh , and H. Visscher Mechanisms forcing abrupt fluctuations of the Indian Ocean summer monsoon during the last glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 16, (1997). 187201.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 43 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 26th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.