Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated ice lenses

  • Alan W. Rempel (a1)
Abstract

The formation of segregated ice is of fundamental importance to a broad range of permafrost and periglacial features and phenomena. Models have been developed to account for the microscopic interactions that drive water migration, and predict key macroscopic characteristics of ice lenses, such as their spacings and thicknesses. For a given set of sediment properties, the temperature difference between the growing and incipient lenses is shown here to depend primarily on the ratio between the effective stress and the temperature deviation from bulk melting at the farthest extent of pore ice. This suggests that observed spacing between ice lenses in frozen soils, or traces of lenses in soils that once contained segregated ice, might be used to constrain the combinations of effective stress and temperature gradient that were present near the time and location at which the lower lens in each pair was initiated. The thickness of each lens has the potential to contain even more information since it depends additionally on the rate of temperature change and the permeability of the sediment at the onset of freezing. However, these complicating factors make it more difficult to interpret thickness data in terms of current or former soil conditions.

Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail address: rempel@uoregon.edu
References
Hide All
Andersland, O.B., and Ladanyi, B. An Introduction to Frozen Ground Engineering. (2004). Chapman and Hall, New York.
Benatov, L., and Wettlaufer, J.S. Abrupt grain boundary melting in ice. Physical Review. E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 70, (2004). 061606
Beskow, G., (1935). Soil Freezing and Frost Heaving with Special Application to Roads and Railroads. The Swedish Geological Society, C, no 375, Year Book no. 3 (translated by J. Osterberg). Technological Institute, Northwestern University, . Reprinted in: Historical perspectives in Frost Heave Research (ed. Black, P. B. & Hardenberg, M. J.). CRREL Special Report 91-23, pp. 37157.
Cahn, J.W., Dash, J.G., and Fu, H.-Y. Theory of ice premelting in monosized powders. Journal of Crystal Growth 123, (1992). 101108.
Christoffersen, P., and Tulaczyk, S. Response of subglacial sediments to basal freeze-on: 1. Theory and comparison to observations from beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, B4 (2003). 2222 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002JB001935
Dash, J.G., Rempel, A.W., and Wettlaufer, J.S. The physics of premelted ice and its geophysical consequences. Reviews of Modern Physics 78, (2006). 695741.
Fowler, A.C. Secondary frost heave in freezing soils. SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics 49, (1989). 9911008.
Fowler, A.C., and Krantz, W.B. A generalized secondary frost heave model. SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics 54, (1994). 16501675.
Hallet, B., Walder, J.S., and Stubbs, C.W. Weathering by segregation ice growth in microcracks at sustained sub-zero temperatures: verification from an experimental study using acoustic emissions. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 2, (1991). 283300.
Hansen-Goos, H., and Wettlaufer, J.S. Theory of ice premelting in porous media. Physical Review. E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 81, (2010). 031604
Henry, K.S. A Review of the Thermodynamics of Frost Heave. CRREL Technical Report 00--16. (2000). 119.
Matsuoka, N. Direct observation of frost wedging in alpine bedrock. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26, (2001). 601614.
Matsuoka, N., and Murton, J. Frost weathering: recent advances and future directions. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 19, (2008). 195210.
Murton, J.B., Peterson, R., and Ozouf, J.-C. Bedrock fracture by ice segregation in cold regions. Science 314, (2006). 11271129.
O'Neill, K., and Miller, R.D. Exploration of a rigid ice model of frost heave. Water Resources Research 21, (1985). 281296.
Penner, E. Ice lensing in layered soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 23, (1986). 334340.
Peppin, S.S.L., Elliott, J.A.W., and Worster, M.G. Solidification of colloidal suspensions. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 554, (2006). 147166.
Peppin, S.S.L., Worster, M.G., and Wettlaufer, J.S. Morphological instability in freezing colloidal suspensions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences 463, (2007). 723733.
Peppin, S.S.L., Wettlaufer, J.S., and Worster, M.G. Experimental verification of morphological instability in freezing aqueous colloidal suspensions. Physical Review Letters 100, (2008). 238301
Rempel, A.W. The formation of ice lenses and frost heave. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, (2007). F020S21 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000525
Rempel, A.W. A theory for ice–till interactions and sediment entrainment beneath glaciers. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, (2008). F01013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007JF000870
Rempel, A.W., Wettlaufer, J.S., and Worster, M.G. Interfacial premelting and the thermomolecular force: thermodynamic buoyancy. Physical Review Letters 87, (2001). 088501
Rempel, A.W., Wettlaufer, J.S., and Worster, M.G. Premelting dynamics in a continuum model of frost heave. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 498, (2004). 227244.
Rempel, A.W., Wettlaufer, J.S., and Worster, M.G. Comment on “A quantitative framework for interpretation of basal ice facies formed by ice accretion over subglacial sediment” by Poul Christoffersen et al. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, (2007). F02036 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000701
Taber, S. Frost heaving. Journal of Geology 37, (1929). 428461.
Taber, S. The mechanics of frost heaving. Journal of Geology 38, (1930). 303317.
Walder, J., and Hallet, B. A theoretical model of the fracture of rock during freezing. Geological Society of America Bulletin 96, (1985). 336346.
Washburn, A.L. Permafrost features as evidence of climatic-change. Earth Science Review 15, (1980). 327402.
Wettlaufer, J.S., Worster, M.G., Wilen, L.A., and Dash, J.G. A theory of premelting dynamics for all power law forces. Physical Review Letters 76, (1996). 36023605.
Wilen, L.A., and Dash, J.G. Frost heave dynamics at a single-crystal interface. Physical Review Letters 74, (1995). 50765079.
Worster, M.G., and Wettlaufer, J.S. Premelting dynamics. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38, (2006). 427452.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed